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Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Stuart L Abramson, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 23, 2015
 

History

The clinical history of delayed hypersensitivity reactions differs depending on the etiology. Some of the more common examples are as follows:

Contact hypersensitivity (ie, allergic contact dermatitis)

Patients often report being in wooded areas or having made contact with poison ivy or poison oak, which caused a rash, itching, or both.

The exposure occurs 48-72 hours before the development of symptoms.

Tuberculin hypersensitivity reactions

Many times during a routine health screening, patients have a positive Mantoux test result and are asymptomatic. In these cases, patients may recall being exposed to someone with TB or with a chronic cough. In many cases, patients do not recall a possible exposure.

The Mantoux test itself is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction.[2, 3] Thus, 48-72 hours following the intradermal administration of purified M tuberculosis protein derivative, patients who have been exposed to the bacteria develop a delayed hypersensitivity reaction manifested by inflammation and edema in the dermis.[4]

Granulomatous hypersensitivity reactions

Diseases in which delayed hypersensitivity is the major pathophysiological response include tuberculous leprosy, TB, sarcoidosis, and schistosomiasis.

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Physical

The physical examination findings can be normal, or they can reveal the signs and symptoms of the specific disease.

  • Contact hypersensitivity: Examination usually reveals edematous and erythematous epidermal tissue with microvesicles. If the offending antigen is from the Rhus genus of plants, the involved area usually appears in a linear fashion. If the offending antigen is nickel (eg, jewelry), then the involved area is oriented in a fashion consistent with the area of contact. Long-term nickel exposure results in an eczematous dermatitis with lichenification of the skin.
  • Tuberculin hypersensitivity reactions: Approximately 48-72 hours following the intradermal administration of purified M tuberculosis protein, patients who have been exposed to M tuberculosis develop an area of erythema and induration.
  • Granulomatous hypersensitivity reactions: The physical examination findings differ depending on the underlying disease. For example, if the patient has active TB, then a chronic cough, malaise, night sweats, weight loss, and pyrexia are present.
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Causes

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are normal physiological events. Anything that alters these normal events can lead to multiple opportunistic infections. Immune deficiencies (congenital or acquired) and immunosuppressive agents can alter this normal response.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Stuart L Abramson, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Allergy/Immunology Section, Texas Children's Hospital

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Michael R Simon, MD, MA Clinical Professor Emeritus, Departments of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont University School of Medicine; Adjunct Staff, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital

Michael R Simon, MD, MA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Michigan State Medical Society, Michigan Allergy and Asthma Society, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Medical Research, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine

Disclosure: Received ownership interest from Secretory IgA, Inc. for management position; Received ownership interest from siRNAx, Inc. for management position.

Chief Editor

Michael A Kaliner, MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, George Washington University School of Medicine; Medical Director, Institute for Asthma and Allergy

Michael A Kaliner, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, American Society for Clinical Investigation, American Thoracic Society, Association of American Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Melvin Berger, MD, PhD Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics and Pathology, Case Western Reserve University; Senior Medical Director, Clinical Research and Development, CSL Behring, LLC

Melvin Berger, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Clinical Investigation, Clinical Immunology Society

Disclosure: Received salary from CSL Behring for employment; Received ownership interest from CSL Behring for employment; Received consulting fee from America''s Health insurance plans for subject matter expert for clinical immunization safety assessment network acvtivity of cdc.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous authors Walter Duane Hinshaw, DO; Gregory Paul Neyman, MD; and Stephen Mark Olmstead, DO; to the development and writing of this article.

References
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