Long-term venous access is of critical importance to a wide group of patients. Such access is obtained by inserting tunneled lines via the internal jugular vein (IJV) or the subclavian vein, either surgically or percutaneously. Combined use of ultrasonographically guided vein puncture and fluoroscopy has significantly reduced the complications related to insertion. This article gives a step-by-step guide to performing radiologic insertion of a tunneled venous line via internal jugular access. 
For more information on central venous access, see Central Venous Access via Subclavian Approach to Subclavian Vein, Subclavian Approach, Central Venous Access via Supraclavicular Approach to Subclavian Vein, and Central Venous Access.
Long-term venous access is indicated in various settings where access is required for continuous infusions and blood volume exchanges for longer than 3 weeks. Such settings include the following:
Chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant (BMT)
Plasmapheresis and leukapheresis
Intravenous (IV) antibiotic and antifungal therapy
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
Pain management (rarely)
Systemic sepsis is an absolute contraindication for central venous access via tunneled catheter because it can lead to line infection. In patients who require a long-term tunneled line for a reason other than IV antibiotic administration, wait for sepsis to settle.
Relative contraindications include local cellulitis (use the opposite side or tunnel away from the area) and low platelet counts or deranged coagulation (correct platelets and coagulation to acceptable levels before performing the procedure).
Local anesthesia is necessary. Use lidocaine 1% or a 1:1 combination of lidocaine 1% and bupivacaine 0.25%, or follow local hospital guidelines. Infiltrate with 3-5 mL in the neck at the site of venipuncture. Use about 15 mL for the full length of the tunnel. (See Local Anesthetic Agents, Infiltrative Administration.) Procedural sedation is optional, depending on the patient and local practices. General anesthesia is usually required for pediatric patients but is rarely necessary for adults.
Equipment used in obtaining central venous access via a tunneled catheter includes the following:
Good ultrasound machine with linear probe
Chlorhexidine (favored) or povidone-iodine solution for skin disinfection
Heparinized saline (1000 IU heparin in 1000 mL of 0.9% saline)
Central line kit (see the image below), including needle, guidewire, dilators, and line; all of the tunneled lines have a polyethylene terephthalate cuff, which helps in tissue fibrosis to anchor the line to the tunnel and decrease infection riskEquipment for placement of tunneled line.
Lines cut to length include the following:
Hickman catheter - This is a 9-French dual-lumen (6 + 3 or 4.5 + 4.5) catheter with or without antibiotic impregnation; it is tunneled forward, and the line is cut to the required length; this type of catheter is used for chemotherapy but works for other indications
Broviac catheter - This is a 6-French single-lumen catheter; it is tunneled forward and cut to length; this type of catheter is usually used for antibiotics or parenteral nutrition; a 2.7-French version is available for neonates
Fixed-length lines include the following:
Groshong catheter - With this catheter, tunneling is performed after line positioning
Dialysis line - This is a dual-lumen line (10-14.5 French) that comes in fixed lengths of 28 cm, 32 cm, and 40 cm; the lumina have staggered ends and extra side holes to improve the flow; it is tunneled forward; a variation is the Ash Split Cath 
Tessio catheter - This 10-French single-lumen line is tunneled backward from neck to chest after line positioning; two lines are usually inserted for dialysis
Apheresis line - This is a 14-French dual-lumen line of fixed length, with staggered ends to each lumen for stem-cell harvesting and infusion; it is tunneled forward
Patients should be positioned supine; the neck may be turned away from the side of vein puncture. Avoid pillows unless they are clearly needed.
Obtain informed consent.
Confirm that the patient has no contrast allergy, has relatively normal coagulation, and has a platelet count greater than 50,000/μ L. Ensure that the patient receives nothing by mouth for 4-6 hours prior to the procedure for moderate sedation.
Local practices vary regarding the administration of antibiotic prophylaxis; options include IV cefazolin 1 g and cefuroxime 750 mg.
Choice of access route and puncture site
IJV access is preferable to subclavian vein access because the IJV is easier to visualize with ultrasonography, IJV access carries a reduced risk of pneumothorax and thrombotic complications, and IJV access carries no risk of uncontrollable arterial injury. The right IJV is preferred to the left IJV because it has a relatively straight course into the right atrium (RA), which reduces the risk of great vessel injury caused by the peelaway sheath or stylet.
The IJV lies anterior and lateral to the carotid artery (see the video below). A low puncture increases the risk of pneumothorax, and a high puncture increases the risk of arterial puncture, in that the artery now lies posterior to the vein.
Placement of tunneled catheter
Clean the skin with chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine solution from the mandible to the nipple, including the angle of the mandible, chin, and axilla, to the opposite sternal border. The authors routinely clean this area on both sides, in case occlusion or stenosis of central vessels is encountered and it proves necessary to perform the procedure on the opposite side.
Use ultrasonography (with a sterile probe cover) to choose a point on the skin above the vein. Infiltrate 3-5 mL of local anesthetic, and make a small (up to 1 cm) horizontal skin incision. Under ultrasonographic guidance, use an access needle (18- or 20-gauge micropuncture) to puncture the jugular vein (see the image and video below). A lateral approach may give the catheter a smoother course, which is less likely to kink.
Advance the 0.035-in. or 0.038-in. guide wire provided in the kit. Use fluoroscopy to guide the wire into the inferior vena cava (IVC), and position it inferior to the junction of the IVC and the RA (an appropriate wire course confirms that access is venous).
Choose a skin exit site about 3-4 in. below the clavicle but away from breast tissue and any prominent veins (see the image below). (For fixed-length catheters whose location depends on length measurement, see the measurement step below.) Infiltrate the remaining 15 mL of local anesthetic starting at this point and along the full length of the expected tunnel.
Make a skin incision, and use either the metal or plastic tunneler to make a tunnel from the skin exit site on the chest to the venotomy site, ensuring that the tunneler is angled upward (see the image below).
Attach the catheter to the tunneler, and pull it through the tract until the cuff enters the tract. Ensure that the cuff is at least 1-3 cm from the skin exit site. Detach the tunneler. Cut the catheter to length, which is measured by advancing a guide wire through the jugular sheath to the superior RA or by placing the line over the chest and cutting below the right main bronchus after fluoroscopy (see the image below).
Predilate the tract in the neck, if necessary, over the previously inserted guide wire, then introduce the peelaway sheath premounted over a dilator.
Ask the patient to stop breathing. Remove the inner dilator and wire, closing the opening in the sheath with a finger. (Note that some current dialysis lines come with a pneumostatic valve.) Feed the line into the peelaway sheath, and peel the sheath (see the image below).
The optimal position of the line tip is in the lower superior vena cava (SVC) or the upper RA, as shown in the chest radiograph at completion (see the images below).
Anchor the line with 2-0 nonabsorbable sutures, and close the skin incision in the neck with 4-0 absorbable sutures, Steri-Strips, or skin glue (2-octyl cyanoacrylate). (See the images below.)
Flush all the lumina of the lines with heparinized saline after aspirating blood (a higher heparin concentration is used for dialysis catheters).
Perform radiography of the chest to assess for proper line positioning and exclude pneumothorax (see the image below). 
The retention stitch may be removed once the cuff is secured (approximately 3-4 weeks).
Local anesthesia along the full length of the tract can be achieved with a spinal needle.
If the wire cannot be advanced, always use fluoroscopy to guide the wire. Avoid moving the wire back and forth through the RA and right ventricle (RV); this can trigger arrhythmias. Positioning of the guide wire into the IVC minimizes the risk of arrhythmia or cardiac injury. Use fluoroscopy when advancing dilators to minimize risk of atrial injury.
To reduce risk of infection, ensure that the cuff position in the tunnel is approximately 2 cm from the skin incision. Note that a cuff position more than 4 cm from the skin wound may complicate eventual catheter removal.
If possible, tilt the table 10 º lower at the head to prevent air embolism when feeding the line into the peelaway sheath.
Intraoperative complications include the following:
Pneumothorax - When ultrasonography is used to guide IJV access, the incidence of this complication is nearly zero
Air embolism  - To prevent this, use a tilting table to lower the patient's head before inserting the line; if no tilting table is available, ask the patient to hum or hold his or her breath; if air embolism is suspected, turn the patient to the left and bring the right side up so as to retain the air in the RA and RV rather than let it enter the pulmonary artery, where its consequences are worse; if air embolism leads to cardiac arrest, manage it as an acute cardiac arrest
Persistent bleeding from the insertion site - Treatment of this complication requires compression, correction of coagulation abnormality, use of gel foam, and, rarely, surgery
Pulmonary embolism - This complication can occur if the passage was through a thrombosed vein
Delayed complications include the following:
Venous thrombosis can occur; treatment usually requires line removal and may require anticoagulation  ; some clinicians anticoagulate 1-4 days before pulling the line
Mechanical failure can occur if the lines are damaged; repair kits exist to address this problem
Fibrin can accumulate around the line tip like a sock, and a fibrin sheath can form, obstructing aspiration  ; this may be treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration; if tPA fails, the catheter can be exchanged over a wire
Infection can be local (involving the tunnel) or intravascular; treatment options depend on the location and severity of the infection and include antibiotics, trading the catheter over a wire, or removing the line and placing a new line at a separate site
Use of fully aseptic insertion technique
Immediate removal of the line if infection is suspected
Use of the smallest possible device, with no more lumina than are required for the task (eg, for antibiotic infusion, a single-lumen 6-French Broviac line is sufficient, and there is no need for a double- or triple-lumen line)
The following measures are sometimes employed to prevent catheter infection, but definitive evidence supporting their use for this purpose is not available:
Prophylactic use of IV or oral antibiotics at the time of insertion
Use of lines impregnated with antibiotics, antiseptics, or silver
Routine line replacement