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Sideroblastic Anemias Treatment & Management

  • Author: Muhammad A Mir, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
 
Updated: Nov 18, 2015
 

Approach Considerations

Treatment of sideroblastic anemia may include removal of toxic agents; administration of pyridoxine, thiamine, or folic acid; transfusion (along with antidotes if iron overload develops from transfusion); other medical measures; or bone marrow or liver transplantation.

Admission and inpatient care may be needed for patients with sideroblastic anemia and cirrhosis, as well as those who have need of repeated blood transfusions.

Go to Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, and Chronic Anemia for complete information on these topics.

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Removal of Toxic Agents

Toxic agents such as zinc, lead, and drugs such as penicillamine should be removed whenever possible; however, this may not always be easy. For example, isoniazid is the mainstay of treatment of active tuberculosis, and a risk-benefit analysis is essential for each patient.

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Vitamin B Therapy

Pyridoxine

Pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deserves a trial in all cases of sideroblastic anemia as many acquired and certain congenital forms of sideroblastic anemia respond to this relatively safe drug. The response will be evident in a few weeks with reticulocytosis and improving hemoglobin levels.

The dose should be tailored to the patient’s tolerance. Dosages up to 1 g/day have been used, but the goal is to find a dosage of pyridoxine (usually 50-200 mg/d) that will maintain the hemoglobin level and yet prevent toxicity (peripheral neuropathy). For those whose condition responds, treatment is life long.

Pyridoxal 5′ phosphate (PLP) is an active form of pyridoxine that has been successfully used in the treatment of sideroblastic anemias in some patients who do not respond to pyridoxine.[72]

Thiamine

Thiamine (vitamin B-1) works by an incompletely understood mechanism to correct sideroblastic anemia in DIDMOAD syndrome.[14]

Folic acid

Folic acid has been reported to reverse sideroblastic changes by itself in some patients.[73] It is advisable to replace folate in pyridoxine-responsive cases to ensure adequate supplies of ingredients during a period of increased hemoglobin synthesis.

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Transfusion

Transfusion is the mainstay of treatment for those whose sideroblastic anemia does not respond to pyridoxine therapy. It is problematic and should be avoided if the anemia is mild to moderate and the patient asymptomatic.

Even in the absence of transfusion, patients with sideroblastic anemia are prone to develop iron overload.[74] Transfusion in sideroblastic anemia has been known to worsen iron overload and lead to secondary hemochromatosis and cirrhosis. Iron overload in sideroblastic anemia can be fatal.[75]

Management of iron overload

Deferoxamine (desferrioxamine; Desferal) can be used if iron overload develops from repeated blood transfusions.[76] Although effective, it must be administered by a subcutaneous pump for several hours a day.

Deferasirox (Exjade) is a relatively new oral iron chelator that has been used instead of deferoxamine and appears to be effective. First used in Europe, it has been introduced in United States and is a once-daily pill. Renal toxicity and allergic reactions are a concern.

Phlebotomy can be performed for iron overload.[77] In some patients who do not tolerate deferoxamine therapy, this procedure is an option, but the limiting factor may be anemia.

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Other Agents

Heme arginate as an infusion has been used with mixed results and is not a first-line drug.[78]

Erythropoietin (EPO) has been tried and does not appear to reverse sideroblastic anemia[79] ; it has also been reported to cause neutropenia in this setting.[80] EPO in combination with G-CSF appears to have a better response rate than EPO alone (50%).[81, 82]

Lenalidomide may reduce transfusion needs in some patients with EPO-refractory RARS.[83]

Prednisone and danazol have not been effective,[84] except for some patients with active connective tissue disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),[85] ) in whom sideroblastic changes disappear with prednisone when the SLE flare subsides.

Cytotoxic therapies such as cyclophosphamide have been tried with some success in patients with erythropoietin inhibitors, resulting in ineffective erythropoiesis.[86]

Chloroquine has been successfully used to treat pyridoxine-resistant sideroblastic anemia, but no large study has been done, and thus only limited data are available.[87] The drug affects heme metabolism and is also used in certain porphyrias.

Ubidecarenone (coenzyme-Q10) has been used with mixed results in the treatment of sideroblastic anemia and is not recommended as standard of care.[88, 89]

Azacitidine and other newer agents being used for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have not been specifically studied or approved for sideroblastic anemias in general.

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Transplantation

Bone marrow

Bone marrow transplantation is a treatment of last resort and is best saved for young patients whose conditions are pyridoxine resistant[90] and transfusion dependent[91] and who have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling. Even then, the response ranges from cure to death within weeks.[60] Severe graft versus host disease has been reported even with HLA-identical sibling donors.[61] The evidence is limited to a few case reports in the literature.[92, 93, 94]

Liver

Surgical intervention in cases of sideroblastic anemia may include liver transplantation for cirrhosis and iron overload that is not responsive to chelation and phlebotomy.

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Dietary Measures and Activity Restriction

Dietary restrictions in cases of sideroblastic anemia include the following:

  • Avoidance of zinc-containing supplements
  • Avoidance of alcohol

Activity is as tolerated in patients with sideroblastic anemia.

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Consultations and Long-Term Monitoring

Consultations

Transfer to the care of a hematologist is recommended, especially for cases of pyridoxine-resistant sideroblastic anemia and for patients who become transfusion dependent.

Consider consultations with the following in cases of sideroblastic anemia:

  • A hematologist
  • A neurologist (in mitochondrial myopathy-anemia syndromes)

Long-term monitoring

Regular follow-up is essential, even for patients with sideroblastic anemia whose condition responds to therapy.

Acute idiopathic sideroblastic anemia, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) or MDS must be monitored for potential transformation into acute leukemias.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Muhammad A Mir, MD, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine (Hematology, Blood/Marrow Transplant) Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine

Muhammad A Mir, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society of Hematology, American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, American Society of Clinical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Gerald L Logue, MD Professor of Medicine, Head of the Division of Hematology, Vice Chairman for Education, Department of Medicine, University of Buffalo State University of New York School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

Gerald L Logue, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians, American Society of Hematology, American Federation for Clinical Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Emmanuel C Besa, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Emmanuel C Besa, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Education, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American College of Clinical Pharmacology, American Federation for Medical Research, American Society of Hematology, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Clarence Sarkodee Adoo, MD, FACP Consulting Staff, Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, City of Hope Samaritan BMT Program

Clarence Sarkodee Adoo, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Clinical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Ring sideroblast.
Heme synthesis.
Sideroblastic anemias: etiologic classification. DIDMOAD = diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness.
Iron and total iron-binding capacity in physiology and pathology.
 
 
 
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