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Hypertensive Encephalopathy Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Irawan Susanto, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael R Pinsky, MD, CM, Dr(HC), FCCP, MCCM  more...
 
Updated: Apr 14, 2015
 
 

Diagnostic Considerations

Hypertensive encephalopathy is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other potentially life-threatening causes must be considered in the assessment of a patient with neurologic deficits. In addition to the conditions listed in the differential diagnosis, other problems to be considered include the following:

  • Acute central nervous system (CNS) event
  • Acute thrombotic stroke
  • Cerebral embolus
  • CNS mass lesion
  • Encephalitis
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Renal failure

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Irawan Susanto, MD, FACP Clinical Professor of Medicine, Director of Pulmonary Consultation and Procedures, Divisions of Interventional Pulmonology and Critical Care, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Irawan Susanto, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michael R Pinsky, MD, CM, Dr(HC), FCCP, MCCM Professor of Critical Care Medicine, Bioengineering, Cardiovascular Disease, Clinical and Translational Science and Anesthesiology, Vice-Chair of Academic Affairs, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Michael R Pinsky, MD, CM, Dr(HC), FCCP, MCCM is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, Association of University Anesthetists, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, American College of Critical Care Medicine, American Heart Association, American Thoracic Society, Shock Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Masimo<br/>Received honoraria from LiDCO Ltd for consulting; Received intellectual property rights from iNTELOMED for board membership; Received honoraria from Edwards Lifesciences for consulting; Received honoraria from Masimo, Inc for board membership.

Additional Contributors

Najia Huda, MD Assistant Professor, Wayne State University School of Medicine; Director of MICU, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Detroit Receiving Hospital

Najia Huda, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Ryan C Chang, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Internal Medicine, Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Kaiser Permanente San Francisco

Ryan C Chang, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians and American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Oleh Wasyl Hnatiuk, MD Program Director, National Capital Consortium, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Walter Reed Army Medical Center; Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences

Oleh Wasyl Hnatiuk, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, and American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Reference Salary Employment

References
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Papilledema. Note the swelling of the optic disc, with blurred margins.
Hypertensive retinopathy. Note the flame-shaped hemorrhages, soft exudates, and early disc blurring.
 
 
 
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