- Author: Alan A Bloom, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD more...
The workup for cholecystitis may include laboratory tests (though these are not always reliable), radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS), and endoscopy.
Although laboratory criteria are not reliable in identifying all patients with cholecystitis, the following findings may be useful in arriving at the diagnosis:
Leukocytosis with a left shift may be observed in cholecystitis.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels are used to evaluate for the presence of hepatitis and may be elevated in cholecystitis or with common bile duct obstruction.
Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase assays are used to evaluate for common bile duct obstruction.
Amylase/lipase assays are used to evaluate for the presence of pancreatitis. Amylase may also be elevated mildly in cholecystitis.
An elevated alkaline phosphatase level is observed in 25% of patients with cholecystitis.
Urinalysis is used to rule out pyelonephritis and renal calculi.
All females of childbearing age should undergo pregnancy testing.
A retrospective study by Singer, aimed at determining a set of clinical and laboratory parameters that could be used to predict the outcome of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in patients with suspected acute cholecystitis, found that of 40 patients with pathologically confirmed acute cholecystitis, 36 (90%) did not have fever at the time of presentation and 16 (40%) did not have leukocytosis. The study also found that no combination of laboratory or clinical values was useful in identifying patients at high risk for a positive HBS finding.
The 2010 American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria offer the following imaging recommendations :
Sonography is the preferred initial imaging test for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and scintigraphy is the preferred alternative.
CT is a secondary imaging test that can identify extrabiliary disorders and complications of acute cholecystitis, such as gangrene, gas formation, and perforation.
CT with intravenous contrast is useful in diagnosing acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific abdominal pain.
MRI, often with intravenous gadolinium-based contrast medium, is also a possible secondary imaging modality useful in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.
MRI without contrast is useful to eliminate radiation exposure in pregnant women for whom sonograms have not indicated a clear diagnosis.
Contrast agents should not be used in patients on dialysis unless absolutely necessary.
Gallstones may be visualized on noncontrast radiography in 10-15% of cases. This finding only indicates cholelithiasis, with or without active cholecystitis.
Subdiaphragmatic free air cannot originate in the biliary tract, and if present, it indicates another disease process. Gas limited to the gallbladder wall or lumen represents emphysematous cholecystitis, usually because of gas-forming bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and clostridial and anaerobic streptococci species. Emphysematous cholecystitis is associated with increased mortality and occurs most commonly in males with diabetes and with acalculous cholecystitis.
Go to Emphysematous Cholecystitis for more complete information on this topic.
A diffusely calcified gallbladder (ie, porcelainized) most commonly is associated with carcinoma, although 2 studies have found no association between partial calcification of the gallbladder and carcinoma.[19, 20]
Other findings may include renal calculi, intestinal obstruction, or pneumonia.
Ultrasonography is 90-95% sensitive for cholecystitis and is 78-80% specific. It provides greater than 95% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gallstones more than 2 mm in diameter. Studies indicate that emergency clinicians require minimal training in order to use right upper quadrant ultrasonography in their practice.[21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26]
Ultrasonographic findings that are suggestive of acute cholecystitis include the following: pericholecystic fluid, gallbladder wall thickening greater than 4 mm, and sonographic Murphy sign. The presence of gallstones also helps to confirm the diagnosis.
Ultrasonography is performed best following a fast of at least 8 hours because gallstones are visualized best in a distended bile-filled gallbladder.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with the agent perflubutane (Sonazoid) shows promise for its use in the diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis. In a study comprising 27 patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent preoperative CEUS, 15 patients had a final diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis and 12 patients had uncomplicated cholecystitis, all confirmed via histologic examination. Of the 15 patients diagnosed with gangrenous cholecystitis, CEUS detected perfusion defects in 10 patients (66.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity; 100% positive predictive value [PPV] and 70.6% negative predictive value [NPV]). Review of the movie clips of the CEUS raised the sensitivity to 73.3% and the NPV to 75%. Interobserver agreement was good (κ coefficient = 0.64).
Disadvantages of ultrasonography include the fact that this imaging modality is operator and patient dependent, it is unable to image the cystic duct, and it has a decreased sensitivity for common bile duct stones. In addition, in the setting of concomittant acute pancreatitis, ultrasonographic findings alone are not adequate to accurately identify acute cholecystitis.
Computed Tomography Scanning and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
The sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting acute cholecystitis have been reported to be greater than 95%. Spiral CT scan and MRI (unlike endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [ERCP]) have the advantage of being noninvasive, but they have no therapeutic potential and are most appropriate in cases where stones are unlikely.
Findings suggestive of cholecystitis include wall thickening (>4 mm), pericholecystic fluid, subserosal edema (in the absence of ascites), intramural gas, and sloughed mucosa.
Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows potential for differentiating between acute and chronic cholecystits. In a study comprising 83 patients with abdominal pain, Wang et al noted that increased signal on high b-value images were highly sensitive and moderately specific for acute cholecystitis.
CT scanning and MRI are also useful for viewing surrounding structures if the diagnosis is uncertain.
HBS has been found to be up to 95% accurate in diagnosing acute cholecystitis. The reported sensitivities and specificities of biliary scintigraphy are in the range of 90-100% and 85-95%. (See the following 2 images.)
In a typical study, the gallbladder, common bile duct, and small bowel fill within 30-45 minutes. If the gallbladder is not visualized, intravenous morphine administration can improve the accuracy of HBS by increasing resistance to flow through the sphincter of Oddi, resulting in filling of the gallbladder if the cystic duct is patent. The addition of morphine also reduces the number of false-positive scan results observed in patients who are critically ill and immobilized with viscous bile.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
ERCP may be useful for visualizing the anatomy in patients at high risk for gallstones if signs of common bile duct obstruction are present. A study performed by Sahai et al found that ERCP was preferred over endoscopic ultrasonography and intraoperative cholangiography for patients at high risk for common bile duct stones undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Disadvantages of ERCP include the need for a skilled operator, high cost, and complications such as pancreatitis, which occurs in 3-5% of cases.
Edema and venous congestion are early acute changes. Acute cholecystitis is usually superimposed on a histologic picture of chronic cholecystitis. Specific findings include fibrosis, flattening of the mucosa, and chronic inflammatory cells. Mucosal herniations known as Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are related to increased hydrostatic pressure and are present in 56% of cases. Focal necrosis and an influx of neutrophils may also be present. Advanced cases may show gangrene or perforation.
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