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Intestinal Leiomyosarcoma Treatment & Management

  • Author: Jaspreet K Ghumman, DO; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 11, 2016
 

Medical Care

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) workup for intra-abdominal sarcomas includes evaluation and management, prior to initiation of therapy, by a multidisciplinary team with expertise and experience in sarcoma. A pretreatment chest/abdominal/pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast, with or without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is also indicated.

Preresection biopsy is not necessarily required, based on the degree of suspicion of other malignancies. Biopsy is required for patients receiving preoperative radiation therapy (RT) or chemotherapy. For resectable disease, surgery with or without intraoperative RT or preoperative therapy with RTand chemotherapy are options.

Chemotherapy and radiation have shown only limited benefit in the treatment of leiomyosarcomas. Response rates to various chemotherapeutic regiments generally have been below 40%.

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Surgical Care

Resection of the tumor is the only hope for cure. Remove associated lymph nodes, but extended lymphadenectomy is not necessary because these tumors rarely metastasize to lymph nodes (see Pathophysiology).[12]

Per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), for resectable disease, surgery with or without intraoperative radiation therapy (RT) or preoperative therapy with RT and chemotherapy are options. For unresectable disease, attempt downstaging of the tumor with chemotherapy or RT and then resect. If it is still unresectable or progressive disease, consider palliative chemotherapy, palliative RT, palliative surgery for symptom control, observation if asymptomatic, and always consider resection of resectable metastatic disease if the primary tumor can be controlled.

Postoperative treatment with RT or reresection, if technically feasible, may be options depending on the surgical outcomes. With R0 disease (negative margins), consider postoperative RT in highly selected patients. With R1 disease (positive margins), consider postoperative RT if no preoperative RT was given or consider a boost (10-16 Gy) if preoperative RT was given. For R2 disease (macroscopic incomplete resection), consider reresection if technically feasible or follow the course for unresectable disease as described above.

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Consultations

A gastroenterologist will likely be involved in most cases of leiomyosarcoma, because affected patients generally present with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Endoscopic ultrasonography may be of some benefit for diagnosing the more proximal tumors. Also, if ulceration occurs, performing a biopsy may be possible.

A surgeon must be involved to provide the definitive treatment.

A hematologist/oncologist may be able to provide insights into the prognosis, define the grade of the tumor and offer possible chemotherapy.

A radiation oncologist may be able to provide insight into possible preoperative, intraoperative, and/or postoperative RT.

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Long-Term Monitoring

Local and systemic recurrence is a real possibility, and even a probability, in many cases of leiomyosarcoma. Closely monitor the patient for such a recurrence, but specific guidelines for follow-up are lacking because of the relatively rare nature of this tumor.

Perform regularly scheduled computed tomography (CT) scans and, as appropriate, endoscopic examinations together with blood work (blood counts and liver profile). The authors suggest a follow-up CT scan of the abdomen and endoscopy, if possible, at 3 and 6 months after surgery. This is followed with yearly screening.

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends physical examination with imaging (abdomen/pelvic CT) every 3-6 months for 2-3 years, then every 6 months for the next 2 years, and then annually.

Stool should be screened for occult blood with the same frequency.

Any abdominal complaint should be evaluated aggressively.

A chest radiograph should be performed with each screening, together with a blood count.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Jaspreet K Ghumman, DO Fellow, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Providence Hospital

Jaspreet K Ghumman, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Osteopathic Internists, American Gastroenterological Association, American Osteopathic Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Michael H Piper, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Wayne State University School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Digestive Health Associates, PLC

Michael H Piper, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians, Michigan State Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Janice M Fields, MD, FACG, FACP Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Providence Hospital, St John Macomb-Oakland Hosptial

Janice M Fields, MD, FACG, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Gastroenterological Association, American Medical Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, National Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Bradley J Warren, DO, FACG, FACOI Consulting Staff, Digestive Health Associates, PLC

Bradley J Warren, DO, FACG, FACOI is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American Osteopathic Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Noel Williams, MD, FRCPC FACP, MACG, Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Noel Williams, MD, FRCPC is a member of the following medical societies: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

BS Anand, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Baylor College of Medicine

BS Anand, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Rajeev Vasudeva, MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, Consultants in Gastroenterology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine

Rajeev Vasudeva, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, Columbia Medical Society, South Carolina Gastroenterology Association, American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, South Carolina Medical Association

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Pricara for speaking and teaching; Received consulting fee from UCB for consulting.

Acknowledgements

George Brasinikas, MD Staff Physician, Gallup Indian Medical Center

George Brasinikas, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, College of American Pathologists, and Medical Association of the State of Alabama

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jill Halonen, MD Staff Physician, Department of Surgery, St Agnes Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Richard K Spence, MD Senior Vice President for Clinical Affairs, Infonale

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Colonic mucosa with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) involving adjacent submucosa (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E] stain, medium power).
Clusters of tumor cells separated by a hyaline and mucin-rich stroma (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E] stain, medium power).
Oval- to spindle-shaped cells forming a fascicle (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E] stain, high power).
CD-34 stain showing a tumor (medium power). CD-34 is a myeloid progenitor cell antigen.
High-power magnification with CD-34 antigen immunohistochemical stain showing membrane positivity of tumor cells.
 
 
 
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