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Colonoscopy

  • Author: David E Stein, MD; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA  more...
 
Updated: Mar 13, 2016
 

Background

Colonoscopy enables visual inspection of the entire large bowel from the distal rectum to the cecum. The procedure is a safe and effective means of evaluating the large bowel. The technology for colonoscopy has evolved to provide a very clear image of the mucosa through a video camera attached to the end of the scope. The camera connects to a computer, which can store and print color images selected during the procedure.

Screening for and follow-up of colorectal cancer are among the indications for colonoscopy. Although colorectal cancer is highly preventable, it is the second most common cancer and cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Both men and women face a lifetime risk of nearly 6% for the development of invasive colorectal cancer. Proper screening can help reduce mortality at all ages, and colonoscopy plays an important role in this effort.

See Benign or Malignant: Can You Identify These Colonic Lesions?, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the features of benign lesions as well as those with malignant potential.

Compared with other imaging modalities, colonoscopy is especially useful in detecting small lesions such as adenomas; however, the main advantage of colonoscopy is that it allows for intervention, because biopsies can be taken and polyps removed.

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Indications

Screening, evaluation, and follow-up of colorectal cancer

Screening in average-risk adults

Recommendations for colorectal cancer screening vary among the leading organizations in this field—namely, the American Cancer Society (ACS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), and the American College of Physicians (ACP). It is generally recommended, however, that average-risk adults should begin colorectal cancer screening at age 50 years, utilizing one of several options for screening, among which is colonoscopy, every 10 years.

Annual fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and periodic flexible sigmoidoscopy with follow-up colonoscopy are also recommended for average-risk screening.

Evaluation and removal of polyps

The finding of a polyp larger than 1 cm in diameter during sigmoidoscopy is an indication for examination of the entire colon because 30-50% of these patients have additional polyps. Although controversy continues regarding whether colonoscopy is indicated for patients with a polyp(s) smaller than 1 cm, the general belief is that most cancers arise in preexisting adenomatous polyps, which should lead to a full colonoscopic examination, regardless of size.

Polypoid lesions observed on barium enema may represent pseudopolyps, true polyps, or carcinomas. Colonoscopy can be used to differentiate among these and can similarly be used to distinguish between benign and malignant strictures, which cannot be accurately accomplished with radiologic studies alone.

When clinical signs and symptoms suggest colon cancer or when screening (by radiography or sigmoidoscopy) identifies a large-bowel tumor, a full colonoscopic examination should be performed to obtain biopsy samples and to search for synchronous lesions. Findings on colonoscopy may also have implications for the surgical treatment plan.

Histologic diagnosis should be based on examination of the completely excised polyp. In general, all polypoid lesions greater than 0.5 cm in diameter should be totally excised. After a large (>2 cm) sessile polyp has been removed or if there is concern that an adenoma was not completely excised, repeat colonoscopy should generally be performed in 3-4 months. If residual tissue remains, it should be resected and colonoscopy repeated again in another 3-4 months.

In patients with polyps identified on initial examination, the American Cancer Society recommends that follow-up colonoscopy be performed on the basis of polyp number and type, as well as dysplasia grade, as follows[1] :

  • Patients with small rectal hyperplastic polyps can be treated as patients with an average risk of cancer, with colonoscopy or other screening on a similar schedule
  • Individuals with one or two sub-1-cm tubular adenomas with low-grade dysplasia should receive colonoscopy 5-10 years after polyp removal
  • Patients who have three to 10 adenomas or one adenoma larger than 1 cm or who have any adenomas with high-grade or villous features should receive follow-up colonoscopy 3 years after removal
  • Patients who have more than 10 adenomas on initial examination should undergo colonoscopy within 3 years
  • Patients with sessile adenomas that are removed in pieces should undergo follow-up colonoscopy 2-6 months after removal

Current or previous bowel resection for colon cancer

Because of the potential implications for the operative plan, preoperative colonoscopy should be performed in patients who are to undergo bowel resection for colon cancer. Patients who have already had a large bowel cancer removed should have a colonoscopy performed 6 months to 1 year after surgery, followed by yearly colonoscopy on two occasions. Some authorities believe that colonoscopy should then be performed every 3 years if the results of all these studies are negative.

Family history of cancer

Individuals with a family history of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome are recommended to undergo genetic testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy every 12 months, beginning at age 10-12 years until age 35-40 years if negative. Consider total colectomy for these individuals because they have a nearly 100% risk of developing colon cancer by age 40 years. Colonoscopy is not as effective in preventing colon cancer under these circumstances as it is with polyps in general.

Individuals who have a first-degree relative diagnosed with colon cancer or adenomas when younger than 60 years, or who have multiple first-degree relatives diagnosed with colon cancer or adenomas, should undergo screening colonoscopy every 3-5 years, beginning either at age 40 years or at an age 10 years younger than that of the earliest familial diagnosis, whichever comes first.[2]

The diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) should be considered in people who have several relatives with colorectal cancer, particularly if one or more of the relatives developed cancer when younger than 50 years. HNPCC is an autosomal dominant disorder with an approximately 70% lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer.

These patients should be evaluated colonoscopically every 1-2 years, beginning at age 20-25 years or at an age 10 years younger than that of onset in the index case (whichever comes first). Perform annual screening in patients older than 40 years.

Management of inflammatory bowel disease

Although many patients do not require colonoscopy for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the procedure is an important aid in the follow-up care and management of patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease (see the images below). Colonoscopy is more sensitive than barium enema in determining the anatomic extent of the inflammatory process and is useful when clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and radiologic studies are inadequate. Colonoscopy with multiple biopsies is indicated to differentiate ulcerative colitis from Crohn disease.

Inflammatory bowel disease. Severe colitis noted d Inflammatory bowel disease. Severe colitis noted during colonoscopy. Mucosa is grossly denuded, with active bleeding noted. Patient had her colon resected very shortly after this view was obtained.
Ulcerative colitis as visualized with colonoscope. Ulcerative colitis as visualized with colonoscope.
Colonoscopic image of large ulcer and inflammation Colonoscopic image of large ulcer and inflammation of descending colon in 12-year-old boy with Crohn disease.

The cancer surveillance schedule varies in patients with inflammatory disease. Patients with pancolitis for more than 7-10 years and patients with left-side ulcerative colitis for more than 15 years are at an increased risk of developing colon cancer. The current recommendation for screening colonoscopy for these groups is every 1-2 years. For patients with Crohn disease of the colon, the same schedule of colonoscopic surveillance is warranted.

Ideally, because differentiating inflammatory changes from premalignant ones can be difficult, colonoscopy for surveillance purposes should not be performed during periods of active colitis, and biopsies from areas of less inflammation should be preferred. It has been suggested that as many as 64 biopsies are needed to achieve 95% sensitivity in surveying for dysplasia in patients with IBD.

Newer technologies, including chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, and narrow-band imaging, may improve detection of dysplasia during surveillance colonoscopy and allow endoscopists to take fewer but higher-yield biopsies.

For additional information on these topics, see Ulcerative Colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Crohn Disease.

Identification and treatment of acute bleeding sites

In the case of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, colonoscopy can be useful not only for localizing the site of bleeding but also, potentially, for enabling therapeutic intervention. Endoscopic therapy using injection of epinephrine, electrocauterization, argon plasma coagulation (APC), band therapy, and/or clips can be used to treat various causes of lower GI bleeding, including postpolypectomy coagulation syndrome, diverticula, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), hemorrhoids, and radiation-induced mucosal injury.

In the acute setting, the endoscopist may be limited by poor visualization in an unprepared colon and by the risks of sedation in an acutely bleeding patient. A purge preparation may be considered, using 4 L of polyethylene glycol (eg, GoLYTELY, CoLyte) either orally over 2 hours or via a nasogastric tube, as tolerated by the patient.

If the bleeding source cannot be determined by means of colonoscopy, angiography or a nuclear medicine scan may be required. Radiographic studies should be performed before colonoscopy when perforation or obstruction is suspected.

Decompression of colon

A volvulus is a twist of a segment of intestine, most commonly in the sigmoid colon and cecum, which often causes a bowel obstruction and can lead to ischemia. Patients present with abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, obstipation, and abdominal distention. Surgical intervention is generally recommended for a cecal volvulus. Colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy can be used to decompress the colon in the case of sigmoid volvulus by advancing the endoscope through the torsed segment of bowel. A large expulsion of air indicates a successful reduction.

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome) is a clinical condition characterized by signs and symptoms of an acute large-bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical cause. When supportive treatment fails, endoscopic decompression may be considered to prevent bowel ischemia and perforation. This is a technically difficult procedure and should be performed by using minimal air insufflation and without preceding oral laxative preparation.

Whereas colonoscopy appears to be beneficial in the management of patients with Ogilvie syndrome, it is associated with a greater risk of complications, and randomized trials have not been done to establish its efficacy.

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Contraindications

Pregnancy is considered to increase the risk of colonoscopy. Guidelines for colonoscopy during pregnancy are not available, because of insufficient data. The largest reported series included eight colonoscopies performed during pregnancy. In this study, six patients delivered healthy infants after colonoscopy. One patient suffered a miscarriage unrelated to colonoscopy, and another had an elective abortion.

In general, colonoscopy may be considered for severe life-threatening conditions during pregnancy when the only alternative is colonic surgery or when colon cancer is suspected. The procedure is best performed in a hospital setting rather than in a doctor’s office. Defer surveillance colonoscopy for prior history of cancer or polyps, abdominal pain, or change in bowel habits until the postpartum period.

Other relative contraindications to colonoscopy include known or suspected colonic perforation, toxic megacolon, and fulminant colitis or severe inflammatory bowel disease with ulceration; these conditions increase the risk of perforation.[3]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

David E Stein, MD Chief, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Director, Mini-Medical School Program, Drexel University College of Medicine; Chief, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hahneman University Hospital; Consultant, Merck; Consultant, Ethicon Endo-Surgery; Consultant, Health Partners; Consultant, Cook Surgical

David E Stein, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, Association for Surgical Education, Pennsylvania Medical Society, Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Merck<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Merck.

Coauthor(s)

Jennifer Lynn Bonheur, MD Attending Physician, Division of Gastroenterology, Lenox Hill Hospital

Jennifer Lynn Bonheur, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, New York Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, New York Academy of Sciences, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Edward A Fazendin, MD Resident Physician, Department of General Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine

Edward A Fazendin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA Vice Chair and Professor, Department of Surgery, Section of Gastrointestinal Medicine, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine; Director, Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, Yale-New Haven Hospital; American Gastroenterological Association Fellow

John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA is a member of the following medical societies: American Gastroenterological Association, American Physiological Society, American Society of Nephrology, Association for Academic Surgery, International Society of Nephrology, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract

Disclosure: Received royalty from AMGEN for consulting; Received ownership interest from Ardelyx for consulting.

Additional Contributors

David Greenwald, MD Professor of Clinical Medicine, Fellowship Program Director, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

David Greenwald, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, New York Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians, American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Michael A Grosso, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Francis Hospital

Michael A Grosso, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society of University Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Alex Jacocks, MD Program Director, Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Oklahoma School of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Burton I Korelitz, MD Director of GI Research, Chief, Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Lenox Hill Hospital, Clinical Professor, Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Brooklyn

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgments

Medscape Reference also thanks Dawn Sears, MD, Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Scott and White Memorial Hospital; and Dan C Cohen, MD, Fellow in Gastroenterology, Scott and White Hospital, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, for assistance with the video contribution to this article.

References
  1. [Guideline] American Cancer Society recommendations for colorectal cancer early detection. American Cancer Society. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/moreinformation/colonandrectumcancerearlydetection/colorectal-cancer-early-detection-acs-recommendations. February 1, 2016; Accessed: March 3, 2016.

  2. [Guideline] Colorectal screening and surveillance: clinical guideline and rationale. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Available at https://www.fascrs.org/colorectal-cancer-screening-and-surveillance-clinical-guideline-and-rationale. Accessed: March 3, 2016.

  3. Bhagatwala J. Colonoscopy - indications and contraindications. Ettarh R, ed. Screening for Colorectal Cancer with Colonoscopy. 3rd ed. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2015.

  4. DiPalma JA, Wolff BG, Meagher A, Cleveland M. Comparison of reduced volume versus four liters sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solutions for colonoscopy colon cleansing. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Oct. 98(10):2187-91. [Medline].

  5. Prepopik (sodium picosulfate/magnesium oxide/anhydrous citric acid) [package insert]. Parsippany, NJ: Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc. July 2012. Available at [Full Text].

  6. Flemming JA, Vanner SJ, Hookey LC. Split-dose picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and citric acid solution markedly enhances colon cleansing before colonoscopy: a randomized, controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012 Mar. 75(3):537-44. [Medline].

  7. Samarasena JB, Muthusamy VR, Jamal MM. Split-Dosed MiraLAX/Gatorade Is an Effective, Safe, and Tolerable Option for Bowel Preparation in Low-Risk Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 May 8. [Medline].

  8. Aronchick CA, Lipshutz WH, Wright SH, Dufrayne F, Bergman G. A novel tableted purgative for colonoscopic preparation: efficacy and safety comparisons with Colyte and Fleet Phospho-Soda. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000 Sep. 52(3):346-52. [Medline].

  9. Markowitz GS, Stokes MB, Radhakrishnan J, D'Agati VD. Acute phosphate nephropathy following oral sodium phosphate bowel purgative: an underrecognized cause of chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Nov. 16(11):3389-96. [Medline].

  10. Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Wilson W, et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. Recommendations by the American Heart Association. Circulation. 1997 Jul 1. 96(1):358-66. [Medline].

  11. [Guideline] Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, et al, American Heart Association. Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation. 2007 Oct 9. 116 (15):1736-54. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  12. Rex DK. Colonoscopic withdrawal technique is associated with adenoma miss rates. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000 Jan. 51(1):33-6. [Medline].

  13. Fernandez-Urien I, Carretero C, Borda A, Munoz-Navas M. Colon capsule endoscopy. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep 14. 14(34):5265-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  14. Song HJ, Shim KN. Current status and future perspectives of capsule endoscopy. Intest Res. 2016 Jan. 14 (1):21-9. [Medline].

  15. Buchner AM, Shahid MW, Heckman MG, et al. High-Definition Colonoscopy Detects Colorectal Polyps at a Higher Rate Than Standard White-Light Colonoscopy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Nov 22. [Medline].

  16. Tribonias G, Theodoropoulou A, Konstantinidis K, et al. Comparison of standard versus high-definition, wide-angle colonoscopy for polyp detection: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Colorectal Dis. 2009 Nov 23. [Medline].

  17. Yamamoto H, Sekine Y, Sato Y, et al. Total enteroscopy with a nonsurgical steerable double-balloon method. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001 Feb. 53(2):216-20. [Medline].

 
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Inflammatory bowel disease. Severe colitis noted during colonoscopy. Mucosa is grossly denuded, with active bleeding noted. Patient had her colon resected very shortly after this view was obtained.
Stricture in terminal ileum noted during colonoscopy. Narrowed segment visible upon intubation of terminal ileum with colonoscope. Relatively little active inflammation is present, indicating that this is cicatrix stricture.
Inflammation in terminal ileum noted during colonoscopy. Areas of inflammation, friability, and ulceration in terminal ileum are consistent with mild-to-moderate Crohn disease.
Ulcerative colitis as visualized with colonoscope.
Colonoscopic image of large ulcer and inflammation of descending colon in 12-year-old boy with Crohn disease.
Colonoscopy video depicts arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in colon. Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows removal of small polyp from cecum with snare polypectomy technique. Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows mass in colon suspicious for colon cancer. Mass is too large to remove endoscopically and will have to be tattooed so that surgeons can find it easily. Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows pseudopolyps in colon. This is usually seen in inflammatory bowel disease (eg, Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis). Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows narrowed area in colon in setting of diverticulitis. Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows narrowed area in colon in setting of diverticulitis. Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows removal of large polyp by hot snare polypectomy technique. Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows placement of tattoo adjacent to colon mass in order to make it visible and easy to locate for surgeons. Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
Colonoscopy video shows diverticulosis (pockets within colon that can bleed or become infected). Video courtesy of Dawn Sears, MD, and Dan C Cohen, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Scott & White Healthcare.
 
 
 
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