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Ulcerative Colitis Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Marc D Basson, MD, PhD, MBA, FACS; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
 
Updated: Nov 18, 2015
 

History

Patients with ulcerative colitis predominantly complain of rectal bleeding, with frequent stools and mucous discharge from the rectum. Some patients also describe tenesmus. Onset is typically insidious. In severe cases, purulent rectal discharge causes lower abdominal pain and severe dehydration, especially in the elderly population.

Ulcerative colitis manifests as an intense inflammatory reaction in the large intestine. Rarely, patients have persistence of small intestinal inflammation following proctocolectomy and pull-through.[27, 28]

Fulminant disease

In some cases, ulcerative colitis has a fulminant course marked by severe diarrhea and cramps, fever, leukocytosis, and abdominal distention. Fulminant disease occurs more often in children than in adults.[29] An estimated 15% of patients present with an attack severe enough to require hospitalization and steroid therapy.[30, 31] Children may also present with systemic complaints, including fatigue, arthritis, failure to gain weight, and delayed puberty. The differential diagnosis of these symptoms in the pediatric population includes many entities, and definitive diagnosis may be delayed.

Extracolonic manifestations

Ulcerative colitis is associated with various extracolonic manifestations. These include uveitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, pleuritis, erythema nodosum, ankylosing spondylitis, and spondyloarthropathies. Reportedly, 6.2% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease have a major extraintestinal manifestation. Uveitis is the most common, with an incidence of 3.8%, followed by primary sclerosing cholangitis at 3%, ankylosing spondylitis at 2.7%, erythema nodosum at 1.9%, and pyoderma gangrenosum at 1.2%.[32] However, reports vary, and some have stated that the incidence of ankylosing spondylitis is as high as 10%. Arthropathies occur in as many as 39% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. About 30% of such patients have inflammatory back pain, 10% have synovitis, and as many as 40% have radiologic findings of sacroiliitis.[33]

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a potentially serious associated condition, often resulting in cholestatic jaundice and liver failure that requires transplantation. Of patients with PSC, 75% have inflammatory bowel disease. Of patients with ulcerative colitis, 5% have cholestatic liver disease, and 40% of those have PSC. One interesting hypothesis about the etiology of PSC in patients with ulcerative colitis involves the release of proinflammatory agents in the colon and their absorption into the enterohepatic circulation; they are then concentrated in the biliary system, leading to bile duct damage.[34, 35]

Additional manifestations of disease

Anecdotal reports of recurrent subcutaneous abscesses unrelated to pyoderma gangrenosum exist,[1] and multiple sclerosis also has been weakly associated with ulcerative colitis.[2]

Immunobullous disease of the skin has been associated with ulcerative colitis. One theory regarding this association is the concept of epitope spread. Colonic inflammation leads to mucosal damage, which exposes otherwise hidden antigens. Antibodies to these antigens are then formed; these most likely are cell adhesion molecules, which cross-react with similar antigens in other tissues.[3]

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Physical Examination

Findings from abdominal examination are usually unremarkable. Physical findings are typically normal in patients with mild disease, except for mild tenderness in the lower left abdominal quadrant.

Patients with severe disease can have signs of volume depletion and toxicity, including the following:

  • Fever
  • Tachycardia
  • Significant abdominal tenderness
  • Weight loss
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Grading

The severity of ulcerative colitis can be graded as follows:

  • Mild - Bleeding per rectum and fewer than 4 bowel motions per day
  • Moderate - Bleeding per rectum with more than 4 bowel motions per day
  • Severe - Bleeding per rectum, more than 4 bowel motions per day, and a systemic illness with hypoalbuminemia (< 30 g/L)
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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Marc D Basson, MD, PhD, MBA, FACS Associate Dean for Medicine, Professor of Surgery and Basic Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences

Marc D Basson, MD, PhD, MBA, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Surgeons, American Gastroenterological Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

BS Anand, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Baylor College of Medicine

BS Anand, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Michael A Grosso, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Francis Hospital

Michael A Grosso, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society of University Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Alex Jacocks, MD Program Director, Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Oklahoma School of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Tri H Le, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center

Tri H Le, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, and Crohns and Colitis Foundation of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Luis M Lovato, MD Associate Clinical Professor, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director of Critical Care, Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center

Luis M Lovato, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Emergency Physicians, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Anil Minocha, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF, CPNSS Professor of Medicine, Director of Digestive Diseases, Medical Director of Nutrition Support, Medical Director of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Internal Medicine Department, University of Mississippi Medical Center; Clinical Professor, University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy

Anil Minocha, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF, CPNSS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Forensic Examiners, American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

Noel Williams, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Noel Williams, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Increased postrectal space is a known feature of ulcerative colitis.
Plain abdominal radiograph from a patient with known ulcerative colitis who presented with an acute exacerbation of his symptoms. The image shows thumbprinting in the region of the splenic flexure of the colon.
Double-contrast barium enema study shows pseudopolyposis of the descending colon.
Single-contrast enema study in a patient with known ulcerative colitis in remission shows a benign stricture of the sigmoid colon.
Plain abdominal radiograph in a 26-year-old with a 10-year history of ulcerative colitis shows a long stricture/spasm of the ascending colon/cecum. Note the pseudopolyposis in the descending colon.
Single-contrast enema study in a patient with total colitis shows mucosal ulcers with a variety of shapes, including collar-button ulcers (yellow arrow), in which undermining of the ulcers occurs, and double-tracking ulcers (red arrow), in which the ulcers are longitudinally orientated.
Double-contrast barium enema study shows total colitis. Note the granular mucosa in the cecum/ascending colon and multiple strictures in the transverse and descending colon in a patient with a more than a 20-year history of ulcerative colitis.
Single-contrast barium enema study shows burnt-out ulcerative colitis.
Intravenous urogram in the same patient as in Image 11 shows features of ankylosing spondylitis.
Lateral radiograph of the lumbar spine in the same patient as in Images 10-11 shows a bamboo spine.
Single-contrast barium enema study in a patient with Shigella colitis.
Postevacuation image obtained after a single-contrast barium enema study shows extensive mucosal ulceration resulting from Shigella colitis.
Double-contrast barium enema studies show granular mucosa associated with Campylobacter colitis.
Ulcerative colitis as visualized with a colonoscope.
Inflamed colonic mucosa demonstrating pseudopolyps.
Table 1. Distinguishing Ulcerative Colitis from Crohn Disease
Ulcerative Colitis Crohn Disease
Only colon involved Panintestinal
Continuous inflammation extending proximally from rectum Skip-lesions with intervening normal mucosa
Inflammation in mucosa and submucosa only Transmural inflammation
No granulomas Noncaseating granulomas
Perinuclear ANCA (pANCA) positive ASCA positive
Bleeding (common) Bleeding (uncommon)
Fistulae (rare) Fistulae (common)
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