Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Malignant Atrophic Papulosis Treatment & Management

  • Author: L Campbell Levy, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jun 17, 2016
 

Approach Considerations

In severe cases, the patient may need to be admitted for a diagnostic evaluation to determine the extent of disease and to exclude other vasculitides such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Malignant atrophic papulosis should be considered in patients diagnosed with a nonspecific vasculitis that does not respond to immunosuppressive therapy.

Admit the patient to the hospital immediately if a complication such as gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, or stroke is suspected. Transfer may be required for surgical intervention in those patients who develop peritonitis or intracranial bleeding. (Surgical treatment usually is required for patients who develop complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation, bowel infarction, or intracranial bleeding.)

Broad-spectrum antibiotics may be used in patients with intestinal perforation in the perioperative period. Discontinuation of prothrombotic medications (eg, oral contraceptives) should be considered.

Monitor patients with isolated cutaneous disease for the development of systemic disease.

Next

Medical Care

Because most patients initially present with skin manifestations, they typically are seen by a dermatologist, at which time a diagnosis usually is made. The skin lesions are not painful, usually do not itch, and generally do not require treatment. Patients who have gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms should undergo an appropriate workup to detect systemic disease, which is an important determinant of prognosis.

Many medications have been tried for treatment of malignant atrophic papulosis, without consistent success. Degos suggested that anticoagulants might be effective, but others have shown them to be of no benefit. Isolated cases of benign cutaneous disease have responded to nicotine patches (5 mg/d transdermal patch) and pentoxifylline plus aspirin. Similarly, antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin and dipyridamole, may reduce the number of new papules but have not shown any consistent benefit in systemic disease. Other drugs (eg, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, sulfonamide, tetracycline, penicillin, interferon 2 alpha) have been shown to be ineffective in altering the course of the disease.

No special dietary or activity considerations are necessary.

Consider consultations with the following specialists:

  • Dermatologists
  • Gastroenterologists
  • Neurologists
  • General surgeons
  • Neurosurgeons
  • Rheumatologists
  • Ophthalmologists
Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

L Campbell Levy, MD Fellow, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center

L Campbell Levy, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Lawrence J Cheskin, MD Director, Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center; Associate Professor, Health, Behavior & Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Joint Appointment, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; International Health/Human Nutrition, JH Bloomberg School of Public Health

Lawrence J Cheskin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians, American Gastroenterological Association

Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Medifast for board membership; Received none from Vivus for purchase of stock as an investment; Received none from Medifast for purchase of stock as an investment.

Brian E Lacy, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School; Director of GI Motility Laboratory, Department of Gastroenterology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center

Brian E Lacy, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Douglas M Heuman, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF Chief of Hepatology, Hunter Holmes McGuire Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

Douglas M Heuman, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Physicians, American Gastroenterological Association

Disclosure: Received grant/research funds from Novartis for other; Received grant/research funds from Bayer for other; Received grant/research funds from Otsuka for none; Received grant/research funds from Bristol Myers Squibb for other; Received none from Scynexis for none; Received grant/research funds from Salix for other; Received grant/research funds from MannKind for other.

Chief Editor

BS Anand, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Baylor College of Medicine

BS Anand, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

David Eric Bernstein, MD Director of Hepatology, North Shore University Hospital; Professor of Clinical Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

David Eric Bernstein, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians, American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Julian Katz, MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine

Julian Katz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians, American Gastroenterological Association, American Geriatrics Society, American Medical Association, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, American Trauma Society, Association of American Medical Colleges, Physicians for Social Responsibility

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Robert J MacNeal, MD Staff Physician, Department of Dermatology, Critical Care Fellowship Reviewer, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center; Supervising Medical Officer, Veterans Administration Hospital, White River Junction, Vermont

Robert J MacNeal, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Hemant Pande, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Gastroenterology, Leesville Surgical Clinic and Digestive Disease Center

Hemant Pande, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Kohlmeier W. Multiple Hautnekrosen bei thromboangitis obliterans. Arch Dermatol Syphilol. 1941. 181:783-792.

  2. Degos R, Delorot J, Tricot R. Dermatite paplulosquameuse atrophinate. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr. 1942. 49:148-150.

  3. Gutiérrez-Pascual M, Hernández-Martín A, Colmenero I, García-Peñas JJ, López-Pino MA, Torrelo A. Malignant atrophic papulosis: a case report with severe visual and neurological impairment. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011 May-Jun. 28(3):302-5. [Medline].

  4. Moss C, Wassmer E, Debelle G, et al. Degos disease: a new simulator of non-accidental injury. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009 Aug. 51(8):647-50. [Medline].

  5. Kim DW, Kang SB, Lee KH, et al. Degos' disease (malignant atrophic papulosis) as a fatal cause of acute abdomen: report of a case. Surg Today. 2008. 38(9):866-70. [Medline].

  6. Flühler C, Stinco G, di Meo N, et al. Malignant form of atrophic papulosis with lethal abdominal involvement. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014 Jul 1. [Medline].

  7. Meephansan J, Komine M, Hosoda S, Tsuda H, Karakawa M, Murata S, et al. Possible involvement of SDF-1/CXCL12 in the pathogenesis of Degos disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Aug 27. [Medline].

  8. Cavalié M, Tsilika K, Sillard L, et al. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of Degos disease. JAMA Dermatol. 2014 Jan. 150(1):96-7. [Medline].

  9. Aizawa H, Takase Y, Inoue K, Murayama S, Mannen T. [An autopsy case of Degos disease with neurological symptoms--neuropathological observations and increased platelet aggregation] [Japanese]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1992 Jan. 32(1):23-9. [Medline].

  10. Amato C, Ferri R, Elia M, et al. Nervous system involvement in Degos disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Mar. 26(3):646-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  11. Assier H, Chosidow O, Piette JC. Absence of antiphospholipid and anti-endothelial cell antibodies in malignant atrophic papulosis: a study of 15 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995 Nov. 33(5 Pt 1):831-3. [Medline].

  12. Atchabahian A, Laisne MJ, Riche F, et al. Small bowel fistulae in Degos' disease: a case report and literature review. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 Oct. 91(10):2208-11. [Medline].

  13. Aydogan K, Alkan G, Karadogan et al. Painful penile ulceration in a patient with malignant atrophic papulosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005 Sep. 19(5):612-6. [Medline].

  14. Ball E, Newburger A, Ackerman AB, et al. Degos' disease: a distinctive pattern of disease, chiefly of lupus erythematosus, and not a specific disease per se. Am J Dermatopathol. 2003 Aug. 25(4):308-20. [Medline].

  15. Barlow RJ, Heyl T, Simson IW, Schulz EJ. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease)--diffuse involvement of brain and bowel in an African patient. Br J Dermatol. 1988 Jan. 118(1):117-23. [Medline].

  16. Beales IL. Malignant atrophic papulosis presenting as gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Dec. 96(12):3462. [Medline].

  17. Bhagwat PV, Tophakhane RS, Shashikumar BM, Noronha TM, Naidu V. Three cases of Dowling Degos disease in two families. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009 Jul-Aug. 75(4):398-400. [Medline].

  18. Black MM. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease). Int J Dermatol. 1976 Jul-Aug. 15(6):405-11. [Medline].

  19. Black MM, Jones EW. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' syndrome). Br J Dermatol. 1971 Sep. 85(3):290-2. [Medline].

  20. Black MM, Nishioka K, Levene GM. The role of dermal blood vessels in the pathogenesis of malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease). A study of two cases using enzyme histochemical, fibrinolytic, electron-microscopical and immunological techniques. Br J Dermatol. 1973 Mar. 88(3):213-9. [Medline].

  21. Bogenrieder T, Kuske M, Landthaler M, Stolz W. Benign Degos' disease developing during pregnancy and followed for 10 years. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002. 82(4):284-7. [Medline].

  22. Burrow JN, Blumbergs PC, Iyer PV. Kohlmeier-Degos disease: a multisystem vasculopathy with progressive cerebral infarction. Aust N Z J Med. 1991 Feb. 21(1):49-51. [Medline].

  23. Casparie MK, Meyer JW, van Huystee BE, Kneppelhout J, Mulder CJ. Endoscopic and histopathologic features of Degos' disease. Endoscopy. 1991 Jul. 23(4):231-3. [Medline].

  24. Chave TA, Varma S, Patel GK, Knight AG. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease): clinicopathological correlations. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001 Jan. 15(1):43-5. [Medline].

  25. Chung HY, Trendell-Smith NJ, Yeung CK, Mok MY. Degos' disease: a rare condition simulating rheumatic diseases. Clin Rheumatol. 2009 Jul. 28(7):861-3. [Medline].

  26. Coskun B, Saral Y, Cicek D, Ozercan R. Benign cutaneous Degos' disease: a case report and review of the literature. J Dermatol. 2004 Aug. 31(8):666-70. [Medline].

  27. Crowson AN, Magro CM, Usmani A, McNutt NS. Immunoglobulin A-associated lymphocytic vasculopathy: a clinicopathologic study of eight patients. J Cutan Pathol. 2002 Nov. 29(10):596-601. [Medline].

  28. De Breucker S, Vandergheynst F, Decaux G. Inefficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins and infliximab in Degos' disease. Acta Clin Belg. 2008 Mar-Apr. 63(2):99-102. [Medline].

  29. Degos R. Malignant atrophic papulosis. Br J Dermatol. 1979 Jan. 100(1):21-35. [Medline].

  30. Delaney TJ, Black MM. Effect of fibrinolytic treatment in malignant atrophic papulosis. Br Med J. 1975 Aug 16. 3(5980):415. [Medline].

  31. Drucker CR. Malignant atrophic papulosis: response to antiplatelet therapy. Dermatologica. 1990. 180(2):90-2. [Medline].

  32. Dubin HV, Stawiski MA. Systemic lupus erythematosus resembling malignant atrophic papulosis. Arch Intern Med. 1974 Aug. 134(2):321-3. [Medline].

  33. Durie BG, Stroud JD, Kahn JA. Progressive systemic sclerosis with malignant atrophic papulosis. Arch Dermatol. 1969 Nov. 100(5):575-81. [Medline].

  34. Egan R, Lessell S. Posterior subcapsular cataract in Degos disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jun. 129(6):806-7. [Medline].

  35. Englert HJ, Hawkes CH, Boey ML, et al. Degos' disease: association with anticardiolipin antibodies and the lupus anticoagulant. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984 Sep 8. 289(6445):576. [Medline].

  36. Evans GH, Ribeiro BF. Degos' disease. A rare cause of multiple intestinal perforation. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1987 Dec. 32(6):371-2. [Medline].

  37. Farrell AM, Moss J, Costello C, et al. Benign cutaneous Degos' disease. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct. 139(4):708-12. [Medline].

  38. Fernandez-Perez ER, Grabscheid E, Scheinfeld NS. A case of systemic malignant atrophic papulosis (Kohlmeier-Degos' disease). J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Mar. 97(3):421-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  39. Fruhwirth J, Mischinger HJ, Werkgartner G, Beham A, Pfaffenthaller EC. Kohlmeier-Degos's disease with primary intestinal manifestation. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997 Oct. 32(10):1066-70. [Medline].

  40. Gilaberte Y, Coscojuela C, Lezaun A, Marigil MA. Degos disease associated with protein S deficiency. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Sep. 153(3):666-7. [Medline].

  41. Gonzalez Valverde FM, Menarguez Pina F, Ruiz JA, et al. Presentation of Degos syndrome as acute small-bowel perforation. Arch Surg. 2003 Jan. 138(1):57-8. [Medline].

  42. Grilli R, Soriano ML, Izquierdo MJ. Panniculitis mimicking lupus erythematosus profundus: a new histopathologic finding in malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos disease). Am J Dermatopathol. 1999 Aug. 21(4):365-8. [Medline].

  43. Guhl G, Diaz-Ley B, Delgado Y, et al. Wegener's granulomatosis: a new entity in the growing differential diagnosis of Degos' disease. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009 Jul. 34(5):e1-3. [Medline].

  44. Guven FO, Bozdag KE, Ermete M, Karaman A. Degos' disease. Int J Dermatol. 2000 May. 39(5):361-2. [Medline].

  45. Hall-Smith P. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease). Two cases occurring in the same family. Br J Dermatol. 1969 Nov. 81(11):817-22. [Medline].

  46. Harvell JD, Williford PL, White WL. Benign cutaneous Degos' disease: a case report with emphasis on histopathology as papules chronologically evolve. Am J Dermatopathol. 2001 Apr. 23(2):116-23. [Medline].

  47. High WA, Aranda J, Patel SB, et al. Is Degos' disease a clinical and histological end point rather than a specific disease?. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jun. 50(6):895-9. [Medline].

  48. Howsden SM, Hodge SJ, Herndon JH. Malignant atrophic papulosis of Degos. Report of a patient who failed to respond to fibrinolytic therapy. Arch Dermatol. 1976 Nov. 112(11):1582-8. [Medline].

  49. Kanekura T, Uchino Y, Kanzaki T. A case of malignant atrophic papulosis successfully treated with nicotine patches. Br J Dermatol. 2003 Sep. 149(3):660-2. [Medline].

  50. Katz SK, Mudd LJ, Roenigk HH Jr. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease) involving three generations of a family. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Sep. 37(3 pt 1):480-4. [Medline].

  51. Kirkup ME, Hunt SJ, Pawade J, Kennedy CT. Inflammatory linear vasculopathy mimicking Degos' disease. Br J Dermatol. 2004 Jun. 150(6):1225-7. [Medline].

  52. Kisch LS, Bruynzeel DP. Six cases of malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease) occurring in one family. Br J Dermatol. 1984 Oct. 111(4):469-71. [Medline].

  53. Kocheril SV, Blaivas M, Appleton BE, McCune WJ, Ike RW. Degos' disease mimicking vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jun 15. 51(3):498-500. [Medline].

  54. Lankisch MR, Johst P, Scolapio JS, Fleming CR. Acute abdominal pain as a leading symptom for Degos' disease (malignant atrophic papulosis). Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Apr. 94(4):1098-9. [Medline].

  55. Liu CM, Harris RM, Hansen CD. Lesions resembling malignant atrophic papulosis in a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis. Cutis. 2005 Feb. 75(2):101-4. [Medline].

  56. Loewe R, Palatin M, Petzelbauer P. Degos disease with an inconspicuous clinical course. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005 Jul. 19(4):477-80. [Medline].

  57. McLoud TC, Munechika H, Shaw R, Putman CE. Calcific constrictive pericarditis in Degos' disease. South Med J. 1978 May. 71(5):609-11. [Medline].

  58. Melnik B, Hariry H, Vakilzadeh F, Gropp C, Sitzer G. [Malignant atrophic papulosis (Köhlmeier-Degos disease). Failure to respond to interferon alpha-2a, pentoxifylline and aspirin] [German]. Hautarzt. 2002 Sep. 53(9):618-21. [Medline].

  59. Mensing C, Mensing H. [Degos atrophic malignant papulosis. Not always malignant!] [German]. Hautarzt. 2002 Jan. 53(1):42-6. [Medline].

  60. Miloslavsky EM, Stone JH, Unizony SH. Challenging mimickers of primary systemic vasculitis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2015. 41(1):141-160. [Medline].

  61. Negahban K, Chern K. Cataracts associated with systemic disorders and syndromes. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002 Dec. 13(6):419-22. [Medline].

  62. Newton JA, Black MM. Familial malignant atrophic papulosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1984 May. 9(3):298-9. [Medline].

  63. Ojeda Cuchillero RM, Sanchez Regana M, Umbert Millet P. Benign cutaneous Degos' disease. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Mar. 28(2):145-7. [Medline].

  64. Paolaggi JA, Daniel F, Mugnier B, Debray C. [Digestive manifestations of malignant atrophying papulosis (Degos' disease). Value of laparoscopy] [French]. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1970 Nov. 121(11):965-9. [Medline].

  65. Pierce RN, Smith GJ. Intrathoracic manifestations of Degos' disease (malignant atrophic papulosis). Chest. 1978 Jan. 73(1):79-84. [Medline].

  66. Pinault AL, Barbaud A, Weber-Muller F, Schmutz JL. [Benign familial Degos disease] [French]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2004 Nov. 131(11):989-93. [Medline].

  67. Plantin P, Labouche F, Sassolas B, Delaire P, Guillet G. Degos' disease: a 10-year follow-up of a patient without visceral involvement. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989 Jul. 21(1):136-7. [Medline].

  68. Powell J, Bordea C, Wojnarowska F. Benign familial Degos disease worsening during immunosuppression. Br J Dermatol. 1999 Sep. 141(3):524-7. [Medline].

  69. Premalatha S, Yesudian P, Janaki VR, Rao NR, Thambiah AS. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' syndrome): first case report from India [letter]. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1980 Sep. 5(3):370-1. [Medline].

  70. Rajagopalan B, Pulimood S, George S, Jacob M. Erythrokeratoderma en cocardes. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1999 May. 24(3):173-4. [Medline].

  71. Requena L, Farina C, Barat A. Degos disease in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 May. 38(5 Pt 2):852-6. [Medline].

  72. Rivoire MJ. [Degos' malignant atrophic papulosis. Outcome after 28 months' treatment with anticoagulants] [French]. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr. 1971. 78(1):18-9. [Medline].

  73. Rodriguez MA. Ischemic colitis and malignant atrophic papulosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1977 Feb. 67(2):163-6. [Medline].

  74. Scheinfeld N. Degos' disease is probably a distinct entity: a review of clinical and laboratory evidence. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Feb. 52(2):375-6; author reply 376-8. [Medline].

  75. Scheinfeld N. Pairing and comparing nine diseases with Degos disease (malignant atrophic papulosis): an attempt to illustrate our understanding and direct future inquiry. Dermatol Online J. 2009 Jan 15. 15(1):10. [Medline].

  76. Shimazu S, Imai H, Kokubu S, et al. [Long-term survival in malignant atrophic papulosis: a case report and review of the Japanese literature] [Japanese]. Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1988 Oct. 89(10):1748-51. [Medline].

  77. Sidi E, Reinberg A, Spinasse JB. Lethal cutaneous and gastrointestinal arteriolar thrombosis (malignant atrophying papulosis of Degos). JAMA. 1960. 174:1170-3.

  78. Snow JL, Muller SA. Degos syndrome: malignant atrophic papulosis. Semin Dermatol. 1995 Jun. 14(2):99-105. [Medline].

  79. Soter NA, Murphy GF, Mihm MC Jr. Lymphocytes and necrosis of the cutaneous microvasculature in malignant atrophic papulosis: a refined light microscope study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982 Nov. 7(5):620-30. [Medline].

  80. Stahl D, Thomsen K, Hou-Jensen K. Malignant atrophic papulosis: treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole. Arch Dermatol. 1978 Nov. 114(11):1687-9. [Medline].

  81. Strole WE Jr, Clark WH Jr, Isselbacher KJ. Progressive arterial occlusive disease (Kohlmeier-Degos). A frequently fatal cutaneosystemic disorder. N Engl J Med. 1967 Jan 26. 276(4):195-201. [Medline].

  82. Subbiah P, Wijdicks E, Muenter M, Carter J, Connolly S. Skin lesion with a fatal neurologic outcome (Degos' disease). Neurology. 1996 Mar. 46(3):636-40. [Medline].

  83. Sugai F, Sumi H, Hara Y, et al. [An autopsy case of Degos' disease with ascending thoracic myelopathy] [Japanese]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1998 Dec. 38(12):1049-53. [Medline].

  84. Theodoridis A, Konstantinidou A, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Malignant and benign forms of atrophic papulosis (Köhlmeier-Degos disease): systemic involvement determines the prognosis. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Jan. 170(1):110-5. [Medline].

  85. Thomas RK, Nithyanandam S, Rawoof BA, Rajendran SC. Malignant atrophic papulosis. Report of a case with multiple ophthalmic findings. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003 Sep. 51(3):260-3. [Medline].

  86. Thomson KF, Highet AS. Penile ulceration in fatal malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease). Br J Dermatol. 2000 Dec. 143(6):1320-2. [Medline].

  87. Torrelo A, Sevilla J, Mediero IG, et al. Malignant atrophic papulosis in an infant. Br J Dermatol. 2002 May. 146(5):916-8. [Medline].

  88. Tribble K, Archer ME, Jorizzo JL. Malignant atrophic papulosis: absence of circulating immune complexes or vasculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986 Aug. 15(2 Pt 2):365-9. [Medline].

  89. Vazquez-Doval FJ, Ruiz de Erenchun F, Paramo JA. Malignant atrophic papulosis. A report of two cases with altered fibrinolysis and platelet function. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1993 Sep. 18(5):441-4. [Medline].

  90. Vicktor C, Schultz-Ehrenburg U. [Malignant atrophic papulosis (Kohlmeier-Degos): diagnosis, therapy and course] [German]. Hautarzt. 2001 Aug. 52(8):734-7. [Medline].

  91. Wachter T, Rose C, Bröcker EB, Leverkus M. [Benign course of malignant atrophic papulosis (Kohlmeier-Degos disease): lack of vessel occlusion as good prognostic sign?] [German]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2003 May. 1(5):374-7. [Medline].

  92. Ward SK, Roenigk HH, Gordon KB. Dermatologic manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1998 Sep. 27(3):615-36, vi. [Medline].

  93. Yag-Howard C, Shenefelt PD. Multiple pink papules with white, depressed centers. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos disease). Arch Dermatol. 1998 Feb. 134(2):233, 236. [Medline].

  94. Yoshikawa H, Maruta T, Yokoji H, et al. Degos' disease: radiological and immunological aspects. Acta Neurol Scand. 1996 Nov. 94(5):353-6. [Medline].

  95. Yukiiri K, Mizushige K, Ueda T, et al. Degos' disease with constrictive pericarditis: a case report. Jpn Circ J. 2000 Jun. 64(6):464-7. [Medline].

  96. Zamiri M, Jarrett P, Snow J. Benign cutaneous Degos disease. Int J Dermatol. 2005 Aug. 44(8):654-6. [Medline].

  97. Toledo AE, Shapiro LS, Farrell JF, Magro CM, Polito J. Laparoscopy shows superiority over endoscopy for early detection of malignant atrophic papulosis gastrointestinal complications: a case report and review of literature. BMC Gastroenterol. 2015 Nov 2. 15:156. [Medline].

  98. Liu F, Liu H, Zhang M, Yan W, Sang H. A case of malignant atrophic papulosis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve impairment. An Bras Dermatol. 2015 May-Jun. 90 (3 suppl 1):19-21. [Medline].

  99. Li Cavoli G, Li Cavoli TV, Rotolo U. Renal involvement in malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos disease). An Bras Dermatol. 2015 Mar-Apr. 90 (2):285. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.