Emphysematous Pyelonephritis (EPN) Medication
- Author: Sugandh Shetty, MD, FRCS; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS more...
As previously mentioned, prompt hydration, fluid resuscitation, and treatment with systemic antibiotics are the mainstays of management in emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN). Initial antibiotic therapy consists of intravenous ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole and is administered until the culture sensitivities are available. In patients with penicillin allergies, vancomycin is used in place of ampicillin. In patients with renal compromise, doses must be adjusted according to creatinine clearance.
Isotonic sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) and lactated Ringer (LR) are isotonic crystalloids, the standard intravenous (IV) fluids used for initial volume resuscitation. They expand the intravascular and interstitial fluid spaces. Typically, about 30% of administered isotonic fluid stays intravascular; therefore, large quantities may be required to maintain adequate circulating volume.
Both fluids are isotonic and have equivalent volume restorative properties. While some differences exist between metabolic changes observed with the administration of large quantities of either fluid, for practical purposes and in most situations, the differences are clinically irrelevant. No demonstrable difference in hemodynamic effect, morbidity, or mortality exists between resuscitation with either NS or LR.
Normal saline (NS, 0.9% NaCl)
NS restores interstitial and intravascular volume. It is used in initial volume resuscitation.
LR restores interstitial and intravascular volume. It is used in initial volume resuscitation.
Colloids are used to provide oncotic expansion of plasma volume. They expand plasma volume to a greater degree than isotonic crystalloids and reduce the tendency of pulmonary and cerebral edema. About 50% of the administered colloid stays intravascular.
Albumin is used for certain types of shock or impending shock. It is useful for plasma volume expansion and maintenance of cardiac output. A solution of NS and 5% albumin is available for volume resuscitation. Five percent solutions are indicated to expand plasma volume, whereas 25% solutions are indicated to raise oncotic pressure.
Antibiotic therapy must be comprehensive and cover all likely pathogens in the context of this clinical setting. The use of linezolid with or without rifampin should be considered for staphylococcal prosthetic joint infection.
Vancomycin is an anti-infective agent used against methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative S aureus (CONS), and ampicillin-resistant enterococci in patients allergic to penicillin.
Ampicillin is used for the treatment of systemic illness warranting hospitalization. It is a broad-spectrum penicillin that interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis during active replication, causing bactericidal activity against susceptible organisms. It can be used as an alternative to amoxicillin when unable to take medication orally.
Until recently, the HACEK bacteria were uniformly susceptible to ampicillin. Recently, however, beta-lactamase–producing strains of HACEK have been identified.
Gentamicin is used for the treatment of systemic illness warranting hospitalization. It is an aminoglycoside antibiotic for gram-negative coverage bacteria including g Pseudomonas species. It is synergistic with beta-lactamse against enterococci. This agent interferes with bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits.
Dosing regimens are numerous and are adjusted based on CrCl and changes in volume of distribution, as well as body space into which agent needs to distribute. Dose of gentamicin may be given IV/IM. Each regimen must be followed by at least trough level drawn on third or fourth dose, 0.5 h before dosing; may draw peak level 0.5 h after 30-min infusion.
Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole that, once concentrated within the organism, is reduced by intracellular electron transport proteins. The formation of free radicals causes disruption of cellular elements and subsequent death of the organism. It is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic for giardiasis. The recommended adult dose is 250 mg PO tid for 5-7 days.
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