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Tetralogy of Fallot Medication

  • Author: Shabir Bhimji, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Park W Willis IV, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 06, 2015
 

Medication Summary

The goals of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) therapy are to reduce the ventilatory drive, increasing systemic venous return, and to increase peripheral vascular resistance.

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Analgesics

Class Summary

Analgesic agents reduce ventilatory drive. In addition, pain control ensures patient comfort and promotes pulmonary toilet. Most analgesic agents have sedating properties, which are beneficial for patients who are having hypercyanotic episodes.

Morphine sulfate (Duramorph, Astramorph, MS Contin)

 

Morphine is the drug of choice (DOC) for narcotic analgesia because of its reliable and predictable effects, safety profile, and ease of reversibility with naloxone.

This agent is administered intravenously (IV), may be dosed in number of ways, and is commonly titrated until the desired effect is obtained.

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Alpha-adrenergic Agonists

Class Summary

Alpha-adrenergic agents improve hemodynamic status by improving myocardial contractility and increasing heart rate, resulting in increased cardiac output. Peripheral resistance is increased by vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, and elevated blood pressure.

Phenylephrine

 

Phenylephrine is a strong postsynaptic alpha-receptor stimulant with little beta-adrenergic activity. This drug produces vasoconstriction of arterioles, thereby increasing peripheral venous return.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Shabir Bhimji, MD, PhD Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgeon, Saudi Arabia and Middle East Hospitals

Shabir Bhimji, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Cancer Society, American College of Chest Physicians, American Lung Association, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Mary C Mancini, MD, PhD, MMM Professor and Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in Shreveport

Mary C Mancini, MD, PhD, MMM is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Surgeons, American Surgical Association, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Park W Willis IV, MD Sarah Graham Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine

Park W Willis IV, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Echocardiography

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

David FM Brown, MD Associate Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Vice Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital

David FM Brown, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: lippincott Royalty textbook royalty; wiley Royalty textbook royalty

David A Donson, MD Assistant Medical Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center

David A Donson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Theodore J Gaeta, DO, MPH, FACEP Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; Vice Chairman and Program Director of Emergency Medicine Residency Program, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York Methodist Hospital; Academic Chair, Adjunct Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, St George's University School of Medicine

Theodore J Gaeta, DO, MPH, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: Alliance for Clinical Education, American College of Emergency Physicians, Clerkship Directors in Emergency Medicine, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, New York Academy of Medicine, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Ronald J Oudiz, MD, FACP, FACC, FCCP Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director, Liu Center for Pulmonary Hypertension, Division of Cardiology, LA Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center

Ronald J Oudiz, MD, FACP, FACC, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Heart Association, and American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Actelion Grant/research funds Clinical Trials + honoraria; Ikaria Grant/research funds Clinical Trials + honoraria; Gilead Grant/research funds Clinical Trials + honoraria; Pfizer Grant/research funds Clinical Trials + honoraria; United Therapeutics Grant/research funds Clinical Trials + honoraria; Lilly Grant/research funds Clinical Trials + honoraria; Lung LLC Clinical Trials + honoraria; Bayer Grant/research funds Consulting; Medtronic Consulting fee Consulting; Novartis Consulting fee Consulting

Kurt Pflieger, MD, FAAP Active Staff, Department of Pediatrics, Lake Pointe Medical Center

Kurt Pflieger, MD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Heart Association, and Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Gary Edward Sander, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FASH Professor of Medicine, Director of CME Programs, Team Leader, Root Cause Analysis, Tulane University Heart and Vascular Institute; Director of In-Patient Cardiology, Tulane Service, University Hospital; Visiting Physician, Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans; Faculty, Pennington Biomedical Research Institute, Louisiana State University; Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine

Gary Edward Sander, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FASH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Chemical Society, American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Federation for Medical Research, American Heart Association, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, American Society of Hypertension,American Thoracic Society, Heart Failure Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, National Lipid Association, and Southern Society for Clinical Investigation

Disclosure: Forest Labs Honoraria Speaking and teaching

Gary Setnik, MD Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital; Assistant Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Gary Setnik, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, National Association of EMS Physicians, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: SironaHealth Salary Management position; South Middlesex EMS Consortium Salary Management position; ProceduresConsult.com Royalty Other

Mark Spektor, DO Medical Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center

Mark Spektor, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physician Executives, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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Anatomic findings in tetralogy of Fallot.
Typical preoperative electrocardiogram (ECG) for tetralogy of Fallot.
Typical findings on postoperative electrocardiogram (ECG) for tetralogy of Fallot.
Uplifted apex and absence of pulmonary artery segment typifies the "coeur en sabot" (ie, boot-shaped heart) of tetralogy of Fallot.
This angiogram shows a catheter in the right ventricle—severe infundibular stenosis.
This image shows completed blocking with a Taussig shunt
An opening in the right ventricle exposes ventricular septal defect
Interrupted pledgetted sutures are used to close a ventricular septal defect.
This image shows a closed ventricular septal defect and closure of right ventriculotomy with Gore-Tex.
Gore-Tex is used for complete closure of right ventriculotomy.
 
 
 
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