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Acute Intermittent Porphyria Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Thomas G DeLoughery, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 23, 2015
 

History

The sequence of events in attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) usually is as follows:

  1. Abdominal pain
  2. Psychiatric symptoms (eg, hysteria)
  3. Peripheral neuropathies, mainly motor neuropathies

Most patients are completely free of symptoms between attacks. How the porphyrin precursors lead to these symptoms is unknown.

During attacks, patients with AIP have no skin manifestations but display neurovisceral signs and symptoms, including autonomic neuropathies that produce constipation, abdominal pain, vomiting, or hypertension and tachycardia. The abdominal pain often is epigastric and colicky in nature; it is severe and lasts for several days. Severe abdominal pain of short (< 1 d) duration or chronic abdominal pain is unusual. Diffuse pain, especially in the upper body, may also be observed.

Central nervous system signs may include the following:

  • Seizures
  • Delirium
  • Cortical blindness
  • Coma

Patients often experience peripheral neuropathies that are predominantly motor and can mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome. The weakness usually starts in the lower limbs and ascends, but neuropathies can be observed in any nerve distribution.

Patients can have a wide variety of psychiatric symptoms. Depression is very common. Usually, patients have concurrent neurologic or abdominal symptoms. A Swedish study documented a fourfold increased risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in patients with AIP. The risk in relatives of individuals with AIP was increased twofold, suggesting  common genetic influences with these diseases.[3]

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Physical

Vital signs during attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) include the following:

  • From 30-80% of patients have tachycardia
  • Fever can be present in some patients
  • Hypertension is observed in half of patients and may persist between attacks

Neurological manifestations are as follows:

  • Usually, the neuropathy is a motor neuropathy that is more predominant in the lower limbs
  • Areflexia often is present on examination
  • Any nerve can be involved, and cranial neuropathies also are observed
  • Patients also may have cortical blindness

Despite the intense pain, the findings on abdominal examination often are nonspecific. Skin examination is noncontributory; unlike many other porphyrias, AIP is not associated with a skin rash.

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Causes

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is due to a combination of a genetic enzyme defect and acquired causes that become symptomatic only in some patients. In patients with AIP, the function of porphobilinogen-deaminase is only 40-60% of normal. With the advent of molecular technique, it has become clear that the genetic defect is more common than symptomatic AIP. On average, out of 100 patients with the genetic defect, perhaps 10-20 secrete excess porphyrin precursors and only 1-2 have symptoms.

The classic inducers of porphyria are chemicals or situations that boost heme synthesis. This includes fasting and many medications. Although very large lists of "safe" and "unsafe" drugs exist, many of these are based on anecdotes or laboratory evidence and do not meet strict criteria. In general, drugs that lead to increased activity of the hepatic P450 system, such as phenobarbital, sulfonamides, estrogens, and alcohol, are associated with porphyria.

A large and detailed list is available on the University of Queensland, Department of Medicine Web site.

Fasting for several days also can trigger an attack. However, many attacks occur without any obvious provocation.

Table 1. Drugs Thought Safe in Porphyria* (Open Table in a new window)

Acetazolamide acetylcholine



Actinomycin D



Acyclovir



Adenosine monophosphate



Adrenaline



Alclofenac



Allopurinol



Alpha tocopheryl



Acetate



Amethocaine



Amiloride



Aminocaproic acid



Aminoglycosides



Amoxicillin



Amphotericin



Ampicillin



Ascorbic acid



Aspirin



Atenolol



Atropine



Azathioprine



Beclomethasone



Benzhexol HCl



Beta-carotene



Biguanides



[Bromazepam]



Bromides



Buflomedil HCl



Bumetanide



Bupivacaine



Buprenorphine



Buserelin



Butacaine SO4



Canthaxanthin



Carbimazole



[Carpipramine HCl]



Chloral hydrate



[Chlormethiazole]



[Chloroquine]



[Chlorothiazide]



Chlorpheniramine



Chlorpromazine



Ciprofloxacin



Cisapride



Cisplatin



Clavulanic acid



Clofibrate



Clomiphene



Cloxacillin



Co-codamol



Codeine phosphate



Colchicine



[Corticosteroids]



Corticotrophin (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH])



Coumarins



Cyclizine



Cyclopenthiazide



Cyclopropane



[Cyproterone acetate]



Danthron



Desferrioxamine



Dexamethasone



[Dextromoramide]



Dextrose



Diamorphine



Diazoxide



Dicyclomine HCl



Diflunisal



Digoxin



Dihydrocodeine



Dimercaprol



Dimethicone



Dinoprost



Diphenoxylate HCl



Dipyridamole



[Disopyramide]



Domperidone



Doxorubicin HCl



Droperidol



[Estazolam]



Ethacrynic acid



Ethambutol



[Ethinyl oestradiol]



Ethoheptazine citrate



Etoposide



Famotidine



Fenbufen



[Fenofibrate]



Fenoprofen



Fentanyl



Flucytosine



Flumazenil



Fluoxetine HCl



Flurbiprofen



Fluvoxamine



Maleate



Folic acid



Fructose



Fusidic acid



Follicle-stimulating hormone



Gentamicin



Glafenine



Glucagon



Glucose



Glyceryl trinitrate



Goserelin



Guanethidine



Guanfacine HCl



Haem arginate



[Haloperidol]



Heparin



Heptaminol HCl



Hexamine



[Hydrocortisone]



Ibuprofen



Indomethacin



Insulin



Iron



Josamycin



[Ketamine]



Ketoprofen



Ketotifen



Labetalol



Luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone



Liquorice



Lithium



Salts lofepramine



Loperamide



[Lorazepam]



Magnesium-sulphate



[Mebendazole]



Mecamylamine



Meclofenoxate HCl



Meclozine



Mefloquine HCl



[Melphalan]



Meptazinol



Mequitazine



Metformin



Methadone



[Methotrimeprazine]



Methylphenidate



Methyluracil



Metipropranolol



Metopimazine



Metoprolol



[Metronidazole]



[Midazolam]



Minaprine HCl



Minaxolone



Morphine



Nadolol



Naftidrofuryl



Oxalate



[Naproxen sodium]



Natamycin



Nefopam HCl



Neostigmine



Netilmicin



Niflumic acid



Nitrous oxide



Norfloxacin



Ofloxacin



Oxolinic acid



Oxybuprocaine



[Oxyphenbutazone]



Oxytocin



[Pancuronium bromide]



Paracetamol



Paraldehyde



Parapenzolate Br



Penicillamine



Penicillin



Pentolinium



Pericyazine



Pethidine



Phenformin



Phenoperidine



Phentolamine mesylate



Pipotiazine



Palmitate



Piracetam



Pirbuterol



Pirenzepine



Pizotifen



[Prazosin]



[Prednisolone]



Primaquine



Probucol



Procainamide HCl



Procaine



Prochlorperazine



Proguanil HCl



Promazine



Propantheline Br



Propofol



Propranolol



Propylthiouracil



[Proxymetacaine]



Pseudoephedrine HCl



Pyridoxine



[Pyrimethamine]



Quinidine



Quinine



[Ranitidine]



Reserpine



Resorcinol



Salbutamol



Senna



Sodium bromide



Sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid



Sodium fusidate



Sorbitol



Streptomycin



Sulbutiamine



Sulindac



Sulfadoxine



Suxamethonium



Talampicillin



Temazepam



Tetracaine



[Tetracyclines]



Thiouracils



Thyroxine



Tiaprofenic acid



Ticarcillin



Tienilic acid



Timolol maleate



Tolazoline



Tranexamic acid



Triacetyloleandomycin



Triamterene



Triazolam



[Trichlormethiazide]



Trifluoperazine



Trimeprazine



Tartrate



Trimetazidine HCl



Tripelennamine



Tubocurarine



Vancomycin



[Vincristine]



Vitamins



Warfarin sodium



Zidovudine



Zinc Preparations



*Bracketed [] drugs are those in which experimental evidence of porphyrin genicity is conflicting.

Table 2. Drugs Thought Unsafe in Porphyria (Open Table in a new window)

Alcuronium



*Alphaxalone



Alphadolone



Alprazolam



Aluminium



Preparations



Amidopyrine



Aminoglutethimide Aminophylline



Amiodarone



*Amitriptyline



[Amphetamines]



*Amylobarbitone



Antipyrine



*Auranofin



*Aurothiomalate



Azapropazone



Baclofen



*Barbiturates



*Bemegride



Bendrofluazide



Benoxaprofen



Benzbromarone



[Benzylthiouracil]



[Bepridil]



Bromocriptine



Busulphan



*Butylscopolamine Captopril



*Carbamazepine



*Carbromal



*Carisoprodol



[Cefuroxime]



[Cephalexin]



[Cephalosporins]



[Cephradine]



[Chlorambucil]



*Chloramphenicol



*Chlordiazepoxide *Chlormezanone



Chloroform



*Chlorpropamide



Cinnarizine



Clemastine



[Clobazam]



[Clomipramine HCl]



[Clonazepam]



Clonidine HCl



*Clorazepate



Cocaine



[Colistin]



Co-trimoxazole



Cyclophosphamide



Cycloserine



Cyclosporin



Danazol



*Dapsone



Dexfenfluramine



Dextropropoxyphene Diazepam



*Dichloralphenazone *Diclofenac Na



Dienoestrol



Diethylpropion



Dihydralazine



*Dihydroergotamine



Diltiazem



*Dimenhydrinate



*Diphenhydramine



[Dothiepin HCl]



Doxycycline



*Dydrogesterone



*Econazole NO3



*Enalapril



Enflurane



*Ergot compounds



Ergometrine maleate Ergotamine tartrate



*Erythromycin



*Estramustine



Ethamsylate



*Ethanol



Ethionamide



*Ethosuximide



*Ethotoin



Etidocaine



Etomidate



Fenfluramine



*Flucloxacillin



*Flufenamic acid



Flunitrazepam



Flupenthixol



Flurazepam



*Frusemide



*Glibenclamide



*Glutethimide



*Glipizide



Gramicidin



*Griseofulvin



[Haloperidol]



*Halothane



*Hydantoins



*Hydralazine



*Hydrochlorothiazide *Hydroxyzine



Hyoscine



*Imipramine



Iproniazid



Isometheptene mucate



[Isoniazid]



Kebuzone



Ketoconazole



*Levonorgestrel



Lignocaine



*Lisinopril



Loprazolam



Loxapine



*Lynestrenol



Lysuride



Maleate



Maprotiline HCl



Mebeverine HCl



*Mecillinam



*Medroxyprogesterone



[Mefenamic acid]



Megestrol acetate



*Mephenytoin



Mepivacaine



*Meprobamate



Mercaptopurine



Mercury compounds



Mestranol



[Metapramine HCl]



Methamphetamine



Methohexitone



Methotrexate



Methoxyflurane



Methsuximide



*Methyldopa



*Methylsulphonal



*Methyprylone



Methysergide



*Metoclopramide



Metyrapone



Mianserin HCl



Miconazole



[Mifepristone]



Minoxidil



*Nandrolone



*Nalidixic acid



Natamycin



*Nandrolone



[Nicergoline]



*Nifedipine



*Nikethamide



Nitrazepam



*Nitrofurantoin



Nordazepam



Norethynodrel



*Norethisterone



[Nortriptyline]



Novobiocin



*Oral contraceptives



*Orphenadrine



Oxanamide



[Oxazepam]



Oxybutynin HCl



Oxycodone



*Oxymetazoline



*Oxyphenbutazone



Oxytetracycline



Paramethadione



Pargyline



*Pentazocine



Perhexiline



Phenacetin



Phenelzine



*Phenobarbitone



Phenoxybenzamine



*Phensuximide



*Phenylbutazone



Phenylhydrazine



*Phenytoin



Pipebuzone



Pipemidic



Acid



Piritramide



*Piroxicam



*Pivampicillin



*Pivmecillinam



Prazepam



Prenylamine



*Prilocaine



*Primidone



[Probenecid]



*Progesterone



Progabide



Promethazine



[Propanidid]



*Pyrazinamide



Pyrrocaine



Quinalbarbitone



Rifampicin



Simvastatin



Sodium aurothiomalate



Sodium oxybate



[Sodium valproate]



*Spironolactone



Stanozolol



Succinimides



*Sulfacetamide



*Sulfadiazine



*Sulfadimidine



*Sulfadoxine



*Sulfamethoxazole *Sulfasalazine



*Sulfonylureas



Sulfinpyrazone



Sulpiride



Sulthiame



Sultopride



*Tamoxifen



*Terfenadine



Tetrazepam



*Theophylline



*Thiopentone Na



Thioridazine



Tilidate



Tinidazole



*Tolazamide



*Tolbutamide



Tranylcypromine



Trazodone HCl



Trimethoprim



[Trimipramine]



Troxidone



Valproate



Valpromide



Veralipride



*Verapamil



*Vibramycin



Viloxazine HCl



[Vinblastine]



[Vincristine]



Zuclopenthixol



*These drugs have been associated with acute attacks of porphyria.



†Bracketed [] drugs are those in which experimental evidence of porphyringenicity is conflicting.



 

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Thomas G DeLoughery, MD Professor of Medicine, Pathology, and Pediatrics, Divisions of Hematology/Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Associate Director, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Division of Clinical Pathology, Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine

Thomas G DeLoughery, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Blood Banks, American College of Physicians, American Society of Hematology, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Marcel E Conrad, MD Distinguished Professor of Medicine (Retired), University of South Alabama College of Medicine

Marcel E Conrad, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Blood Banks, American Chemical Society, American College of Physicians, American Physiological Society, American Society for Clinical Investigation, American Society of Hematology, Association of American Physicians, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, International Society of Hematology, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, SWOG

Disclosure: Partner received none from No financial interests for none.

Chief Editor

Emmanuel C Besa, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Emmanuel C Besa, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Education, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American College of Clinical Pharmacology, American Federation for Medical Research, American Society of Hematology, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Clarence Sarkodee Adoo, MD, FACP Consulting Staff, Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, City of Hope Samaritan BMT Program

Clarence Sarkodee Adoo, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Clinical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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  11. Delaby C, To-Figueras J, Deybach JC, et al. Role of two nutritional hepatic markers (insulin-like growth factor 1 and transthyretin) in the clinical assessment and follow-up of acute intermittent porphyria patients. J Intern Med. 2009 Apr 23. epub ahead of print. [Medline].

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Table 1. Drugs Thought Safe in Porphyria*
Acetazolamide acetylcholine



Actinomycin D



Acyclovir



Adenosine monophosphate



Adrenaline



Alclofenac



Allopurinol



Alpha tocopheryl



Acetate



Amethocaine



Amiloride



Aminocaproic acid



Aminoglycosides



Amoxicillin



Amphotericin



Ampicillin



Ascorbic acid



Aspirin



Atenolol



Atropine



Azathioprine



Beclomethasone



Benzhexol HCl



Beta-carotene



Biguanides



[Bromazepam]



Bromides



Buflomedil HCl



Bumetanide



Bupivacaine



Buprenorphine



Buserelin



Butacaine SO4



Canthaxanthin



Carbimazole



[Carpipramine HCl]



Chloral hydrate



[Chlormethiazole]



[Chloroquine]



[Chlorothiazide]



Chlorpheniramine



Chlorpromazine



Ciprofloxacin



Cisapride



Cisplatin



Clavulanic acid



Clofibrate



Clomiphene



Cloxacillin



Co-codamol



Codeine phosphate



Colchicine



[Corticosteroids]



Corticotrophin (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH])



Coumarins



Cyclizine



Cyclopenthiazide



Cyclopropane



[Cyproterone acetate]



Danthron



Desferrioxamine



Dexamethasone



[Dextromoramide]



Dextrose



Diamorphine



Diazoxide



Dicyclomine HCl



Diflunisal



Digoxin



Dihydrocodeine



Dimercaprol



Dimethicone



Dinoprost



Diphenoxylate HCl



Dipyridamole



[Disopyramide]



Domperidone



Doxorubicin HCl



Droperidol



[Estazolam]



Ethacrynic acid



Ethambutol



[Ethinyl oestradiol]



Ethoheptazine citrate



Etoposide



Famotidine



Fenbufen



[Fenofibrate]



Fenoprofen



Fentanyl



Flucytosine



Flumazenil



Fluoxetine HCl



Flurbiprofen



Fluvoxamine



Maleate



Folic acid



Fructose



Fusidic acid



Follicle-stimulating hormone



Gentamicin



Glafenine



Glucagon



Glucose



Glyceryl trinitrate



Goserelin



Guanethidine



Guanfacine HCl



Haem arginate



[Haloperidol]



Heparin



Heptaminol HCl



Hexamine



[Hydrocortisone]



Ibuprofen



Indomethacin



Insulin



Iron



Josamycin



[Ketamine]



Ketoprofen



Ketotifen



Labetalol



Luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone



Liquorice



Lithium



Salts lofepramine



Loperamide



[Lorazepam]



Magnesium-sulphate



[Mebendazole]



Mecamylamine



Meclofenoxate HCl



Meclozine



Mefloquine HCl



[Melphalan]



Meptazinol



Mequitazine



Metformin



Methadone



[Methotrimeprazine]



Methylphenidate



Methyluracil



Metipropranolol



Metopimazine



Metoprolol



[Metronidazole]



[Midazolam]



Minaprine HCl



Minaxolone



Morphine



Nadolol



Naftidrofuryl



Oxalate



[Naproxen sodium]



Natamycin



Nefopam HCl



Neostigmine



Netilmicin



Niflumic acid



Nitrous oxide



Norfloxacin



Ofloxacin



Oxolinic acid



Oxybuprocaine



[Oxyphenbutazone]



Oxytocin



[Pancuronium bromide]



Paracetamol



Paraldehyde



Parapenzolate Br



Penicillamine



Penicillin



Pentolinium



Pericyazine



Pethidine



Phenformin



Phenoperidine



Phentolamine mesylate



Pipotiazine



Palmitate



Piracetam



Pirbuterol



Pirenzepine



Pizotifen



[Prazosin]



[Prednisolone]



Primaquine



Probucol



Procainamide HCl



Procaine



Prochlorperazine



Proguanil HCl



Promazine



Propantheline Br



Propofol



Propranolol



Propylthiouracil



[Proxymetacaine]



Pseudoephedrine HCl



Pyridoxine



[Pyrimethamine]



Quinidine



Quinine



[Ranitidine]



Reserpine



Resorcinol



Salbutamol



Senna



Sodium bromide



Sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid



Sodium fusidate



Sorbitol



Streptomycin



Sulbutiamine



Sulindac



Sulfadoxine



Suxamethonium



Talampicillin



Temazepam



Tetracaine



[Tetracyclines]



Thiouracils



Thyroxine



Tiaprofenic acid



Ticarcillin



Tienilic acid



Timolol maleate



Tolazoline



Tranexamic acid



Triacetyloleandomycin



Triamterene



Triazolam



[Trichlormethiazide]



Trifluoperazine



Trimeprazine



Tartrate



Trimetazidine HCl



Tripelennamine



Tubocurarine



Vancomycin



[Vincristine]



Vitamins



Warfarin sodium



Zidovudine



Zinc Preparations



*Bracketed [] drugs are those in which experimental evidence of porphyrin genicity is conflicting.
Table 2. Drugs Thought Unsafe in Porphyria
Alcuronium



*Alphaxalone



Alphadolone



Alprazolam



Aluminium



Preparations



Amidopyrine



Aminoglutethimide Aminophylline



Amiodarone



*Amitriptyline



[Amphetamines]



*Amylobarbitone



Antipyrine



*Auranofin



*Aurothiomalate



Azapropazone



Baclofen



*Barbiturates



*Bemegride



Bendrofluazide



Benoxaprofen



Benzbromarone



[Benzylthiouracil]



[Bepridil]



Bromocriptine



Busulphan



*Butylscopolamine Captopril



*Carbamazepine



*Carbromal



*Carisoprodol



[Cefuroxime]



[Cephalexin]



[Cephalosporins]



[Cephradine]



[Chlorambucil]



*Chloramphenicol



*Chlordiazepoxide *Chlormezanone



Chloroform



*Chlorpropamide



Cinnarizine



Clemastine



[Clobazam]



[Clomipramine HCl]



[Clonazepam]



Clonidine HCl



*Clorazepate



Cocaine



[Colistin]



Co-trimoxazole



Cyclophosphamide



Cycloserine



Cyclosporin



Danazol



*Dapsone



Dexfenfluramine



Dextropropoxyphene Diazepam



*Dichloralphenazone *Diclofenac Na



Dienoestrol



Diethylpropion



Dihydralazine



*Dihydroergotamine



Diltiazem



*Dimenhydrinate



*Diphenhydramine



[Dothiepin HCl]



Doxycycline



*Dydrogesterone



*Econazole NO3



*Enalapril



Enflurane



*Ergot compounds



Ergometrine maleate Ergotamine tartrate



*Erythromycin



*Estramustine



Ethamsylate



*Ethanol



Ethionamide



*Ethosuximide



*Ethotoin



Etidocaine



Etomidate



Fenfluramine



*Flucloxacillin



*Flufenamic acid



Flunitrazepam



Flupenthixol



Flurazepam



*Frusemide



*Glibenclamide



*Glutethimide



*Glipizide



Gramicidin



*Griseofulvin



[Haloperidol]



*Halothane



*Hydantoins



*Hydralazine



*Hydrochlorothiazide *Hydroxyzine



Hyoscine



*Imipramine



Iproniazid



Isometheptene mucate



[Isoniazid]



Kebuzone



Ketoconazole



*Levonorgestrel



Lignocaine



*Lisinopril



Loprazolam



Loxapine



*Lynestrenol



Lysuride



Maleate



Maprotiline HCl



Mebeverine HCl



*Mecillinam



*Medroxyprogesterone



[Mefenamic acid]



Megestrol acetate



*Mephenytoin



Mepivacaine



*Meprobamate



Mercaptopurine



Mercury compounds



Mestranol



[Metapramine HCl]



Methamphetamine



Methohexitone



Methotrexate



Methoxyflurane



Methsuximide



*Methyldopa



*Methylsulphonal



*Methyprylone



Methysergide



*Metoclopramide



Metyrapone



Mianserin HCl



Miconazole



[Mifepristone]



Minoxidil



*Nandrolone



*Nalidixic acid



Natamycin



*Nandrolone



[Nicergoline]



*Nifedipine



*Nikethamide



Nitrazepam



*Nitrofurantoin



Nordazepam



Norethynodrel



*Norethisterone



[Nortriptyline]



Novobiocin



*Oral contraceptives



*Orphenadrine



Oxanamide



[Oxazepam]



Oxybutynin HCl



Oxycodone



*Oxymetazoline



*Oxyphenbutazone



Oxytetracycline



Paramethadione



Pargyline



*Pentazocine



Perhexiline



Phenacetin



Phenelzine



*Phenobarbitone



Phenoxybenzamine



*Phensuximide



*Phenylbutazone



Phenylhydrazine



*Phenytoin



Pipebuzone



Pipemidic



Acid



Piritramide



*Piroxicam



*Pivampicillin



*Pivmecillinam



Prazepam



Prenylamine



*Prilocaine



*Primidone



[Probenecid]



*Progesterone



Progabide



Promethazine



[Propanidid]



*Pyrazinamide



Pyrrocaine



Quinalbarbitone



Rifampicin



Simvastatin



Sodium aurothiomalate



Sodium oxybate



[Sodium valproate]



*Spironolactone



Stanozolol



Succinimides



*Sulfacetamide



*Sulfadiazine



*Sulfadimidine



*Sulfadoxine



*Sulfamethoxazole *Sulfasalazine



*Sulfonylureas



Sulfinpyrazone



Sulpiride



Sulthiame



Sultopride



*Tamoxifen



*Terfenadine



Tetrazepam



*Theophylline



*Thiopentone Na



Thioridazine



Tilidate



Tinidazole



*Tolazamide



*Tolbutamide



Tranylcypromine



Trazodone HCl



Trimethoprim



[Trimipramine]



Troxidone



Valproate



Valpromide



Veralipride



*Verapamil



*Vibramycin



Viloxazine HCl



[Vinblastine]



[Vincristine]



Zuclopenthixol



*These drugs have been associated with acute attacks of porphyria.



†Bracketed [] drugs are those in which experimental evidence of porphyringenicity is conflicting.



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