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Gastric Volvulus Medication

  • Author: William W Hope, MD; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA  more...
 
Updated: Apr 02, 2015
 

Medication Summary

Medications are used in gastric volvulus to treat associated symptoms, most notably pain, nausea, and vomiting. Commonly used pain medications include morphine sulfate and hydromorphone. Commonly used antiemitics include promethazine and ondansetron.

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Analgesics

Class Summary

Pain control is essential to quality patient care. It ensures patient comfort, promotes pulmonary toilet, and prevents exacerbations in tachycardia and hypertension.

Morphine sulfate (Duramorph, Astramorph, MS Contin, Avinza, Kadian)

 

Morphine is the drug of choice for narcotic analgesia due to its reliable and predictable effects, safety profile, and ease of reversibility with naloxone. Like fentanyl, morphine sulfate is easily titrated to desired level of pain control.

Morphine sulfate administered IV may be dosed in a number of ways. It is commonly titrated until the desired effect is obtained.

Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)

 

Hydromorphone is a potent semisynthetic opiate agonist similar in structure to morphine. It is approximately 7-8 times as potent as morphine on mg-to-mg basis, with a shorter or similar duration of action.

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Antiemetics

Class Summary

As dopamine antagonists, these agents are effective if nausea and vomiting are prominent features. They also may act as prokinetics to increase gastric motility and enhance absorption.

Promethazine (Phenergan, Phenadoz)

 

Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative that possesses antihistaminic, sedative, antimotion sickness, antiemetic, and anticholinergic effects.

Ondansetron (Zofran)

 

Odansetron is a selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist that blocks serotonin both peripherally and centrally. It prevents nausea and vomiting, including that associated with emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (eg, high-dose cisplatin) and complete body radiotherapy.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

William W Hope, MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine; Director of Surgical Education, Department of Surgery, New Hanover Regional Medical Center/South East Area Health Education Center

William W Hope, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, North Carolina Medical Society, Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Cr bars<br/>Received research grant from: Ethicon, cr bard, we gore<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Cr bard, wl gore <br/>Received grant/research funds from Ethicon for research; Received grant/research funds from CR Bard for consulting.

Coauthor(s)

Mohamed Akoad, MD Liver Transplant Surgeon, Division of Hepatobiliary and Liver Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Veterans Administration Pittsburgh Healthcare System

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA Vice Chair and Professor, Department of Surgery, Section of Gastrointestinal Medicine, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine; Director, Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, Yale-New Haven Hospital; American Gastroenterological Association Fellow

John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA is a member of the following medical societies: American Gastroenterological Association, American Physiological Society, American Society of Nephrology, Association for Academic Surgery, International Society of Nephrology, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract

Disclosure: Received royalty from AMGEN for consulting; Received ownership interest from Ardelyx for consulting.

Acknowledgements

Richard W Golub, MD, FACS Consulting Surgeon, Sarasota Memorial Hospital and Doctors Hospital; Consulting Surgeon, Intercoastal Medical Group

Richard W Golub, MD, FACS, is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, Association for Academic Surgery, Association for Surgical Education, Crohns and Colitis Foundation of America, Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

David L Morris, MD, PhD, FRACS Professor, Department of Surgery, St George Hospital, University of New South Wales, Australia

David L Morris, MD, PhD, FRACS, is a member of the following medical societies: British Society of Gastroenterology

Disclosure: RFA Medical None Director; MRC Biotec None Director

Juan B Ochoa, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Medical and Scientific Director, HCN, Nestle Healthcare Nutrition

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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Table 1. Anatomic Defects Associated With Gastric Volvulus
Congenital defects Diaphragmatic defects: 43%
Gastric ligaments: 32%
Abnormal attachments, adhesions, or bands: 9%
Asplenism: 5%
Small and large bowel malformations: 4%
Pyloric stenosis: 2%
Colonic distention: 1%
Rectal atresia: 1%
Complicating gastroesophageal surgery
Neuromuscular disorders Poliomyelitis
Source: Miller DL, Pasquale MD, Seneca RP. Gastric volvulus in the pediatric population. Arch Surg. Sep 1991;126(9):1146-9.[10]
Table 2. Causes of Secondary Gastric Volvulus in Adults
Diaphragmatic Defects Gastroesophageal Surgery Neuromuscular Disorder Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure Conditions Leading to Diaphragmatic Elevation
Hiatal hernia



Posttraumatic



Nissen fundoplication



Total esophagectomy



Highly selective vagotomy



Coronary artery bypass graft



Motor neuron disease



Poliomyelitis



Myotonic dystrophy



Abdominal tumors Phrenic nerve palsy



Left lung resection



Intrapleural adhesions



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