Spur Cell Anemia Medication
- Author: Christopher D Braden, DO; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD more...
Because patients with abetalipoproteinemia cannot absorb triglycerides, a diet restricted in these nutrients may result in significant improvement of symptoms. Supplementation of the diet with lipid-soluble vitamins A, K, E, and D results in further improvement of neurologic and retinal symptoms.
Vitamins are used to meet necessary dietary requirements and are used in metabolic pathways, as well as DNA and protein synthesis.
Vitamin A is a cofactor in many biochemical processes.
Vitamin E protects polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes from attack by free radicals and protects red blood cells from hemolysis.
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin absorbed by the gut and stored in the liver. It is necessary for the function of clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Phytonadione is used to replace the essential vitamin K forms not obtained in sufficient quantities in the diet or to further supplement levels.
This agent stimulates absorption of calcium and phosphate from small intestine and promotes release of calcium from bone into blood. Use for treatment of vitamin D deficiency or prophylaxis of vitamin D deficiency.
Doll DC, Doll NJ. Spur cell anemia. South Med J. 1982 Oct. 75(10):1205-10. [Medline].
Haruta I, Hashimoto E, Kabutake A, et al. Spur cell anemia associated with a cirrhotic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patient. Hepatol Res. 2007 Jun. 37(6):482-5. [Medline].
Alexopoulou A, Vasilieva L, Kanellopoulou T, Pouriki S, Soultati A, Dourakis SP. Presence of spur cells as a highly predictive factor of mortality in patients with cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Apr. 29 (4):830-4. [Medline].
Shohet SB, Ness PM. Hemolytic anemias. Failure of the red cell membrane. Med Clin North Am. 1976 Sep. 60(5):913-32. [Medline].
Cooper RA. Hemolytic syndromes and red cell membrane abnormalities in liver disease. Semin Hematol. 1980 Apr. 17(2):103-12. [Medline].
Cynamon HA, Isenberg JN, Gustavson LP, Gourley WK. Erythrocyte lipid alterations in pediatric cholestatic liver disease: spur cell anemia of infancy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1985 Aug. 4(4):542-9. [Medline].
Olivieri O, Guarini P, Negri M, et al. Increased proteolytic activity of erythrocyte membrane in spur cell anaemia. Br J Haematol. 1988 Dec. 70(4):483-9. [Medline].
Arienti G, Carlini E, Scionti L, Puxeddu E, Brunetti P. Liver alcoholic cirrhosis and spur-cell (acanthocytic) anaemia. A study of erythrocyte ghost composition and fluidity. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1995 Dec. 30(12):1204-9. [Medline].
Kok VC, Lee CK, Horng JT, Lin CC, Sung FC. Reappraisal of the etiology of extracorpuscular non-autoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia in 2657 hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic disease. Clin Med Insights Pathol. 2014. 7:11-4. [Medline].
Marks PW. Hematologic manifestations of liver disease. Semin Hematol. 2013 Jul. 50(3):216-21. [Medline].
Wong P. A basis of the acanthocytosis in inherited and acquired disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2004. 62(6):966-9. [Medline].
Redman CM, Russo D, Lee S. Kell, Kx and the McLeod syndrome. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 1999 Dec. 12(4):621-35. [Medline].
Terada N, Fujii Y, Ueda H, et al. Ultrastructural changes of erythrocyte membrane skeletons in chorea-acanthocytosis and McLeod syndrome revealed by the quick-freezing and deep-etching method. Acta Haematol. 1999 Mar. 101(1):25-31. [Medline].
Chitale AA, Sterling RK, Post AB, et al. Resolution of spur cell anemia with liver transplantation: a case report and review of the literature. Transplantation. 1998 Apr 15. 65(7):993-5. [Medline].