The inguinal region of the body, also known as the groin, is located on the lower portion of the anterior abdominal wall, with the thigh inferiorly, the pubic tubercle medially, and the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) superolaterally. The inguinal canal is a tubular structure that runs inferomedially and contains the spermatic cord in males and the round ligament in females. The floor of the inguinal canal is the inguinal ligament, otherwise known as the Poupart ligament, which is formed from the external oblique aponeurosis as it folds over and inserts from the ASIS to the pubic tubercle. This folded edge is called the shelving edge and is important for surgeons in hernia repairs. The inguinal canal is a conduit where structures pass, which has significance from an embryological standpoint as well as a pathological standpoint.
Formation of the inguinal canal in males occurs concurrently with testicular descent prior to birth. The testes originate in the posterior abdominal cavity and, through certain signals, descend and ultimately reside in the scrotal cavity. This descent of the testis in males creates an inherent weakness in the abdominal wall at the inguinal canal. This weakness is important in the development of inguinal hernias. During normal testicular descent, the testis migrates caudally and traverses through various layers of the abdominal wall to end up in the scrotum. In females, the final event results in the ovum descending into the pelvis.
This process of testicular decent is assisted by a structure known as the gubernaculum, which forms on the inferior aspect of the gonad and signals descent and ultimately adherence of the gonad in its final destination. Failure for this event to occur in males leads to an undescended testis (testicle), otherwise known as cryptorchidism.
The muscle and fascial layers of the anterior abdominal wall continue inferiorly to form the layers covering the spermatic cord as it continues through the inguinal canal and into the scrotum. Around the 12th week of gestation, the processus vaginalis forms, which is an embryonic developmental outpouching of the peritoneum.  Ultimately, the connection of the processus vaginalis with the peritoneal cavity obliterates and it becomes a serous sac surrounding the testis, called the tunica vaginalis testis.
Inguinal region anatomy is illustrated in the image below.
The inguinal canal has 2 openings: the deep (internal) inguinal ring and the superficial (external) inguinal ring. The boundaries of the canal are as follows  :
Posterior wall - Transversalis fascia laterally; conjoint tendon medially
Anterior wall - Internal oblique muscle laterally and aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
Roof - internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles
Floor - Inguinal ligament and lacunar ligament (medially)
The contents of the inguinal canal in males consist of the spermatic cord (with the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve) and the ilioinguinal nerve. For females, the contents include the round ligament, genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, and the ilioinguinal nerve. It should be noted that the ilioinguinal nerve passes through the superficial ring but does not completely run through the entire inguinal canal. 
The ilioinguinal nerve is a direct branch off the first lumbar nerve (L1). It provides sensation to the upper and medial thigh, as well as the perineum anteriorly. In men, it innervates the anterior aspect of the scrotum and the skin around the area of the root of the penis. In women, it provides sensation to the skin of the mons pubis and labia majora. This nerve also plays a role in the afferent portion of the cremasteric reflex, while the femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve plays the major afferent role. 
The genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve is derived from L1/L2 spinal nerve roots. This nerve provides motor function to the cremaster muscle, as well as sharing in sensory innervation to the scrotum in males and labia in females. This nerve also provides the efferent portion of the cremasteric reflex. 
Special care must be taken to protect this nerve during Lichtenstein repair of a hernia, as it is quite susceptible to damage. Lichtenstein repair is one of the open methods used to treat inguinal hernias. While some techniques use suturing to repair the defects associated with inguinal hernias, the Lichtenstein technique uses mesh to cover the defect. The mesh is sutured at the internal oblique muscle. Since the nerve passes in between the internal and external oblique muscles, suturing the mesh at the internal oblique for the hernia repair makes the nerve vulnerable to damage.  If this occurs, the patient may experience hyperesthesia or hypoesthesia of the innervated area.
The spermatic cord is covered with 3 layers, as follows  :
The innermost layer consisting of the internal spermatic fascia, which is derived from the transversalis fascia
The cremasteric fascia, which is derived from the internal oblique muscle
The outermost layer consisting of the external spermatic fascia, which is derived from the deep fascia of the external oblique
The spermatic cord is formed by various nerves and vessels that connect to the testis. The classic description of the components of the spermatic cord is of 3 arteries, as follows:
Artery to the ductus deferens (or vas deferens), testicular artery, cremasteric artery
Pampiniform plexus, ductus deferens (vas deferens), lymphatics
Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1/L2)
Testicular anatomy is illustrated in the image below.
An inguinal hernia is the protrusion of intra-abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall. It can be fat, bowel, or, in some cases, the genitourinary tract. The 2 types of inguinal hernias are direct inguinal hernias and indirect inguinal hernias.
An indirect inguinal hernia forms as a result of the failure of the processus vaginalis to fully obliterate. When it remains open, the potential for herniation occurs. Thus, it is referred to as a congenital hernia. This hernia lies lateral to the inferior epigastric artery. It passes through the deep (internal) inguinal ring and may pass through the entire inguinal canal and into the scrotum, depending on the patency of the processus vaginalis.
The second type of inguinal hernia is the direct hernia. This hernia forms as a result of weakening of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. It typically occurs as a result of increased abdominal pressure. Thus, it is known as an acquired hernia. The herniation is found to be medial to the inferior epigastric artery. 
Hydrocele, like an indirect inguinal hernia, is the result of persistence of the processus vaginalis, and they may exist together. In this case, the persistence of the processus vaginalis leads to excessive fluid accumulation in the scrotum and around the testis. The amount of fluid present depends on the patency of the processus vaginalis.  If the processus vaginalis remains open, the hydrocele is termed communicating because persistent communication exists between the abdominal and scrotal cavities. The hydrocele can increase and decrease in size with gravity and throughout the day. This needs to be corrected with surgical excision of the hydrocele/hernia sac and repair of the hernia defect, if necessary.
Testicular cancer is becoming one of the most curable forms of cancers, in part because of advances in chemotherapeutics and in surgical techniques. Patients with testicular cancer must have their testis removed in order to be cured of the disease. The testis is removed in a procedure known as a radical inguinal orchiectomy with high ligation of the spermatic cord. 
In this procedure, the testis is removed via an incision made superior and parallel to the inguinal canal. Once this incision is made and deepened through the Camper and Scarpa fascias, the external oblique aponeurosis is incised sharply heading inferomedially through the external ring. The ilioinguinal nerve is seen to lie over the spermatic cord. This is retracted gently, and the spermatic cord is then dissected around and freed up completely. A Penrose drain is used as a tourniquet to prevent the possible spread of cancer via the compression of vessels and lymphatics. The testis is then delivered through the inguinal canal and freed from its gubernacular attachments. The spermatic cord is then divided by double-clamping and is suture-ligated, tied, and excised. The external oblique aponeurosis is then closed by sutures to prevent hernias.
This technique is highly preferred over the scrotal approach, owing to changes of the lymphatic drainage once the scrotal wall is violated.
Cryptorchidism refers to a testis that has not completely descended and, as such, is not found in the scrotum. Prior to birth, the testes reside within the abdomen in the fetus. The testis then begins to migrate towards the internal inguinal ring. Between 28 and 40 weeks’ gestation, the testes begin transinguinal migration, which ultimately leads to placement within the scrotum. For patients with cryptorchidism, it is recommended that the testis be placed in the scrotum if it has not migrated on its own within 6 months. By surgically correcting the problem, the patient has an increased chance of fertility and is able to perform testicular self-examinations to check for cancer. It is important for the patient to be able to examine himself because patients with cryptorchidism have a significantly increased risk of testicular cancer. 
Lymph nodes in the inguinal region receive drainage from the penis, scrotum, and vulva. Patients with cancer or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may acquire lymphadenopathy in this region.
Penile cancer is a rare but serious disease found in certain parts of Africa and South America. This is one of the types of cancer in which primary metastasis occurs through the lymphatic system. The first site of penile cancer spread is the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. It is very important to identify these nodes because they are important in the staging and treatment of patients with penile cancer. The urologist may decide to perform a prophylactic inguinal lymph node dissection. This helps to assess whether nodal metastasis exists, as well as helping achieve a cure for some patients. 
Patients with testicular cancer do not primarily have inguinal lymphadenopathy. Testicular cancer typically spreads to lumbar lymph nodes, specifically to preaortic and lateral aortic nodes. However, testicular cancer may metastasize to the superficial inguinal nodes if there is excessive retroperitoneal involvement, scrotal invasion, or if scrotal orchiectomy is performed. 
Certain STDs may manifest inguinal lymphadenopathy. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an STD caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The first stage of this disease consists of small painless papules and papules that tend to ulcerate. Within 2-6 weeks, the second stage of the disease occurs, which involves painful inguinal lymphadenopathy. These lymph nodes may coalesce and form buboes.  Another STD known as chancroid is known to cause inguinal lymphadenopathy. This disease is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. This disease is characterized by painful ulcerative lesions on the genitalia. Within 1-2 weeks, patients may experience painful inguinal lymphadenopathy. 
For symptomatic inguinal hernias, the treatment is surgical repair. The major indication for repair is to prevent incarceration from occurring. This occurs when the bowel becomes trapped in the hernia defect and may become strangulated, thus stopping any blood flow to the bowel segment. This can then lead to necrosis if not reduced within a certain period.
The following image shows the template for superficial inguinal lymph node dissection for a patient with penile cancer.
Laparoscopic versus open repair
Hernias can be repaired using either an open technique or a laparoscopic technique. In both procedures, the goal is to remove the hernia sac, with repair of the inguinal canal. The repair can be performed by reapproximating the patient’s autogenous tissue to minimize or close the defect. If the defect is severe enough, a heterogenous material such as a polypropylene mesh is used for reinforcement.
With laparoscopic repair, the 2 techniques used are the completely extraperitoneal repair and the transabdominal preperitoneal patch.
The advantages of open versus laparoscopic procedures have been debated. Laparoscopic procedures have the advantage of a less invasive approach with decreased morbidity, decreased pain, and faster recovery. However, compared with open procedures, laparoscopic repair also involves some potentially serious risks including bowel obstruction, bladder damage, and potential neurovascular damage.