Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Medication

  • Author: Sara J Grethlein, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 09, 2014
 

Medication Summary

In patients who have Helicobacter pylori infection in association with a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (MALToma), especially if it is a gastric MALToma, the first line of therapy is treatment of the H pylori infection. In asymptomatic patients with low-grade MALTomas who are not infected with H pylori or whose MALToma does not respond to H pylori treatment, options include observation as opposed to active intervention.

If treatment is required, treatments similar to those used for other low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are used. Monotherapy with agents such as chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, or rituximab may be employed. Combinations of chemotherapy agents, with or without rituximab, may also be used. Patients with large-cell MALTomas are treated with combination chemotherapy (usually CHOP [cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone]), with or without rituximab.

Next

Antineoplastics

Class Summary

Antineoplastics interrupt proliferative activity and induce programmed cell death in proliferating B cells of MALTomas.

Cyclophosphamide

 

Cyclophosphamide is transformed primarily in the liver to active alkylating metabolites. These metabolites interfere with the growth of susceptible rapidly proliferating malignant cells. The mechanism of action is thought to involve cross-linking of tumor cell DNA.

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)

 

Doxorubicin results in a conformational change of DNA and interferes with RNA polymerase, causing inhibition of protein synthesis.

Vincristine (Vincasar)

 

Vincristine is a vinca alkaloid extracted from the plant Catharanthus rosea. It is cell cycle specific (M phase). The mitotic apparatus is arrested in metaphase via disruption of the microtubules. Absorption of vincristine through the GI tract is variable; therefore, administer the drug intravenously. It is metabolized extensively in the liver and excreted primarily via bile. Neurotoxicity is the limiting factor during therapy. Peripheral neuropathy is vincristine's most common adverse effect at usual doses.

Previous
Next

Corticosteroids

Class Summary

Corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic effects. These agents modify the body's immune response to diverse stimuli.

Prednisone

 

Prednisone is metabolized by the liver to the active metabolite prednisolone. This binds extensively to albumin and transcortin. The unbound portion crosses cell membranes and binds to specific cytoplasmic receptors, inducing a response by modifying transcription and, ultimately, protein synthesis. Prednisolone is further metabolized to inactive compounds. It is used as a component of the CHOP combination chemotherapy regimen.

Previous
Next

Antineoplastic Agents

Class Summary

These agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation. Some agents may also suppress immune cells involved in MALTomas.

Fludarabine (Fludara)

 

Fludarabine is a nucleotide analogue of vidarabine that is converted to 2-fluoro-ara-A, which enters the cell and is phosphorylated to form the active metabolite 2-fluoro-ara-ATP, which inhibits DNA synthesis.

Etoposide (Toposar)

 

Etoposide inhibits topoisomerase II and causes DNA strand breakage, causing cell proliferation to arrest in the late S or early G2 portion of the cell cycle.

Mitoxantrone

 

Mitoxantrone inhibits cell proliferation by intercalating DNA and inhibiting topoisomerase II.

Bleomycin

 

Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits DNA synthesis. It is used for palliative purposes in the management of several neoplasms.

Chlorambucil (Leukeran)

 

Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links strands of DNA, inhibiting DNA replication and RNA transcription.

Previous
Next

Monoclonal Antibodies

Class Summary

Monoclonal antibodies are genetically engineered chimeric murine-human immunoglobulins directed against proteins involved in cell cycle initiation.

Rituximab (Rituxan)

 

Rituximab is a genetically engineered chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibody that is directed against the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant B cells. The antibody is an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)-kappa containing murine light- and heavy-chain variable region sequences and human constant region sequences.

Previous
Next

Antibiotics

Class Summary

Antibiotics are the mainstay of therapy aimed at eradicating H pylori, the major etiologic agent of gastric MALToma.

Clarithromycin (Biaxin, Biaxin XL)

 

Clarithromycin inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking the dissociation of peptidyl transfer RNA (tRNA) from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest.

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

 

Metronidazole is an imidazole ring-based antibiotic that is active against various anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is used in combination with other antimicrobial agents (except for Clostridium difficile enterocolitis).

Amoxicillin (Moxatag)

 

Amoxicillin is an acid-stable semisynthetic penicillin. Its antimicrobial activity is pH-dependent, with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) decreasing as the pH increases.

Previous
Next

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Class Summary

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used in combination with antibiotics for eradication of H pylori.

Omeprazole (Prilosec)

 

Omeprazole decreases gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the parietal cell proton pump (hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase [H+/K+ ATPase]).

Lansoprazole (Prevacid)

 

Lansoprazole suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme system (ie, proton pump) at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. The drug blocks the final step of acid production, inhibiting basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion and therefore increasing gastric pH. Lansoprazole's effect is dose related. The drug is easy to administer to children because it is available as a capsule or an oral disintegrating tablet or in granular form for use in an oral suspension.

Esomeprazole (Nexium)

 

Esomeprazole is an (S)-isomer of omeprazole. It inhibits gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the H+/K+-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cells.

Dexlansoprazole (Dexilant)

 

Dexlansoprazole suppresses gastric acid secretion by specifically inhibiting the H+/K+-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells.

Rabeprazole sodium (AcipHex)

 

Rabeprazole sodium suppresses gastric acid secretion by specifically inhibiting the H+/K+-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells.

Pantoprazole (Protonix)

 

Pantoprazole suppresses gastric acid secretion by specifically inhibiting the H+/K+-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells.

Previous
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Sara J Grethlein, MD Associate Dean for Undergraduate Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine

Sara J Grethlein, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Clinical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Emmanuel C Besa, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Emmanuel C Besa, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Education, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American College of Clinical Pharmacology, American Federation for Medical Research, American Society of Hematology, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Troy H Guthrie, Jr, MD Director of Cancer Institute, Baptist Medical Center

Troy H Guthrie, Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Federation for Medical Research, American Medical Association, American Society of Hematology, Florida Medical Association, Medical Association of Georgia, and Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jose A Perez Jr, MD, MBA, MSEd Residency Director, Internal Medicine Residency Program, Vice Chair of Education, Department of Medicine, Methodist Hospital; Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College

Jose A Perez Jr, MD, MBA, MSEd is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physician Executives, American College of Physicians, Society of General Internal Medicine, and Society of Hospital Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Karen Seiter, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology/Hematology, New York Medical College

Karen Seiter, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Research, American College of Physicians, and American Society of Hematology

Disclosure: Novartis Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Novartis Consulting fee Speaking and teaching; Eisai Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Celgene Honoraria Speaking and teaching

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

References
  1. Johnson RM, Brown EJ. Cell-mediated immunity in host defense against infectious diseases. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone; 2000. 131-4.

  2. Greer JP, Macon WR, McCurley TL. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lee GR, Foerster J, Lukens J, et al, eds. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. 10th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 1999. 2471-3.

  3. Bufo P. Academic lesson; 1999. The MALTomas.

  4. Santacroce L. Academic lesson; 1997. Anatomy, physiology and surgical pathophysiology of the MALT.

  5. Beagley KW, Elson CO. Cells and cytokines in mucosal immunity and inflammation. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1992 Jun. 21(2):347-66. [Medline].

  6. Featherstone C. M cells: portals to the mucosal immune system. Lancet. 1997 Oct 25. 350(9086):1230. [Medline].

  7. Hamzaoui N, Pringault E. Interaction of microorganisms, epithelium, and lymphoid cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 17. 859:65-74. [Medline].

  8. Dubois B, Barthélémy C, Durand I, et al. Toward a role of dendritic cells in the germinal center reaction: triggering of B cell proliferation and isotype switching. J Immunol. 1999 Mar 15. 162(6):3428-36. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  9. Delves PJ, Roitt IM. The immune system. First of two parts. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 6. 343(1):37-49. [Medline].

  10. Delves PJ, Roitt IM. The immune system. Second of two parts. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13. 343(2):108-17. [Medline].

  11. Chin YH, Cai JP, Hieselaar T. Lymphocyte migration into mucosal lymphoid tissues: mechanism and modulation. Immunol Res. 1991. 10(3-4):271-8. [Medline].

  12. Keren DF. Intestinal mucosal immune defense mechanisms. Am J Surg Pathol. 1988. 12 suppl 1:100-5. [Medline].

  13. Rosebeck S, Lucas PC, McAllister-Lucas LM. Protease activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein in MALT lymphoma development and treatment. Future Oncol. 2011 May. 7(5):613-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  14. Stolte M, Bayerdörffer E, Morgner A, et al. Helicobacter and gastric MALT lymphoma. Gut. 2002 May. 50 Suppl 3:III19-24. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  15. Cavalli F, Isaacson PG, Gascoyne RD, Zucca E. MALT Lymphomas. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2001. 241-58. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  16. Fung CY, Grossbard ML, Linggood RM, et al. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach: long term outcome after local treatment. Cancer. 1999 Jan 1. 85(1):9-17. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Chen T, Cen L, Xiao R, Yang JH, Jiang NK, Lu XZ, et al. [Prognostic value of t(11; 18) (q21; q21) for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Apr. 29(2):181-3. [Medline].

  18. Perry C, Herishanu Y, Metzer U, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT in patients with extranodal marginal zone MALT lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 2007 Sep. 79(3):205-9. [Medline].

  19. Fischbach W, Schramm S, Goebeler E. Outcome and quality of life favour a conservative treatment of patients with primary gastric lymphoma. Z Gastroenterol. 2011 Apr. 49(4):430-5. [Medline].

  20. Chen Y, Inobe J, Marks R, et al. Peripheral deletion of antigen-reactive T cells in oral tolerance. Nature. 1995 Jul 13. 376(6536):177-80. [Medline].

  21. Bachert C, Möller P. [The tonsils as MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) of the nasal mucosa] [German]. Laryngorhinootologie. 1990 Oct. 69(10):515-20. [Medline].

  22. Kracke A, Hiller AS, Tschernig T, et al. Larynx-associated lymphoid tissue (LALT) in young children. Anat Rec. 1997 Jul. 248(3):413-20. [Medline].

  23. Lugton I. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues as sites for uptake, carriage and excretion of tubercle bacilli and other pathogenic mycobacteria. Immunol Cell Biol. 1999 Aug. 77(4):364-72. [Medline].

  24. Ferreri AJ, Assanelli A, Crocchiolo R, et al. Therapeutic management of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Jun. 8(8):1073-83. [Medline].

  25. Wündisch T, Dieckhoff P, Greene B, Thiede C, Wilhelm C, Stolte M, et al. Second Cancers and Residual Disease in Patients Treated for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma by Helicobacter pyloriEradication and Followed for 10 Years. Gastroenterology. 2012 Jun 27. [Medline].

  26. Choi YJ, Lee DH, Kim JY, Kwon JE, Kim JY, Jo HJ, et al. Low Grade Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: Clinicopathological Factors Associated with Helicobacter pylori Eradication and Tumor Regression. Clin Endosc. 2011 Dec. 44(2):101-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  27. Amiot A, Lévy M, Copie-Bergman C, Dupuis J, Szablewski V, Le Baleur Y, et al. Rituximab, alkylating agents or combination therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a monocentric non-randomised observational study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Mar. 39(6):619-28. [Medline].

  28. Zucca E, Conconi A, Laszlo D, López-Guillermo A, Bouabdallah R, Coiffier B, et al. Addition of rituximab to chlorambucil produces superior event-free survival in the treatment of patients with extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma: 5-year analysis of the IELSG-19 Randomized Study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 10. 31(5):565-72. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Low magnification micrograph of a lymphoepithelial lesion of the gastrointestinal tract in the setting of a primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma. H&E stain. Colonic biopsy (descending colon). Lymphoepithelial lesions are strongly associated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas (MALT lymphomas); however, they may appear in other types of lymphomas.
High magnification micrograph of a lymphoepithelial lesion of the gastrointestinal tract in the setting of a primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma. H&E stain. Colonic biopsy (descending colon). Lymphoepithelial lesions are strongly associated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas (MALT lymphomas); however, they may appear in other types of lymphomas.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.