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Antithrombin III 

  • Author: Jun Teruya, MD, DSc; Chief Editor: Eric B Staros, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 30, 2014
 

Reference Range

Antithrombin is a natural anticoagulant that inhibits the activated coagulation factors thrombin (factor IIa), factor Xa, and, to a lesser extent, factor XIa and factor IXa.

The reference range of antithrombin varies by age, as follows:

  • Newborn: 60%-90%
  • Children and adults: 80%-120%

Plasma concentration: 0.15-0.2 mg/mL

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Interpretation

An increased antithrombin level is not a clinical problem.

Inherited types of antithrombin deficiency are as follows:

  • Type I - Decreased functional and immunological antithrombin level
  • Type II - Decreased functional antithrombin activity, while protein concentration is normal

Acquired antithrombin deficiency may be associated with the following:

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Collection and Panels

Specimen: Citrated plasma

Collection: Blue-top tube with 3.2% sodium citrate

Centrifugation: 2000-2500 g for 15 minutes or similar regimen to produce platelet-poor plasma

Storage: Up to 8 hours at room temperature; plasma sample should be frozen within 1-2 hours; specimen is stable for one month at -20°C or 6-9 months at -80°C

Antithrombin activity is measured by synthetic chromogenic activity in the presence of excess heparin levels.

A high concentration of hemoglobin, bilirubin, and triglycerides might affect antithrombin measurement.

Treatment with thrombin inhibitors may lead to overestimation of the antithrombin level in plasma.

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Background

Description

Antithrombin is glycoprotein (molecular weight, 58 kDa) that is synthesized in the liver. It circulates in the blood, with a half-life of 2-3 days.

Antithrombin is a natural anticoagulant that inhibits the activated coagulation factors thrombin (factor IIa), factor Xa, and, to a lesser extent, factor XIa and factor IXa. Heparin significantly increases the inhibition rate.

The antithrombin level does not influence the results of screening coagulation tests such as partial thromboplastin time (PTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time. The measurement of antithrombin activity (functional antithrombin level) is a widely used laboratory test in clinical practice, while the antithrombin antigen (immunological antithrombin level) assay, which is used to confirm inherited antithrombin deficiency only, is rarely used.

Indications/Applications

Antithrombin testing is indicated in the following:[1]

  • Idiopathic thromboembolic disease as a part of thrombophilia workup with other hemostasis tests such as protein C, protein S, homocysteine, lupus anticoagulant, factor V Leiden, and prothrombin mutation 20210
  • Monitoring of antithrombin substitution therapy in the treatment of inherited or acquired antithrombin deficiency
  • Resistance of unfractionated heparin therapy[2]

Considerations

Inherited antithrombin deficiency is less common than acquired deficiency.[3] The diagnosis of hereditary deficiency requires testing of both antithrombin activity and antithrombin antigen, and repeated testing and family studies may be needed.

Antithrombin deficiency can increase the risk of recurrent miscarriage.[4]

Administration of full-dose unfractionated heparin (but not LMWH) can cause a reversible reduction in antithrombin levels of up to 30% within several days. A falsely normal antithrombin concentration might be determined in antithrombin-deficient patients treated with thrombin inhibitors, but not with anti-Xa inhibitors.[5]

While most functional laboratory assays are sensitive for detecting antithrombin deficiency type I, some commercial assays are better than others at detecting antithrombin deficiency type II.[6, 7]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Jun Teruya, MD, DSc FCAP, Professor of Pathology and Immunology, Vice Chairman for Education, Professor of Pediatrics, Professor of Medicine, Director, Tranfusion Medicine/Blood Banking Fellowship Program, Head, Division of Baylor Transfusion Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine; Director, Division of Transfusion Medicine and Coagulation, Texas Children's Hospital

Jun Teruya, MD, DSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Blood Banks, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American Society of Hematology, College of American Pathologists, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Massachusetts Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Vadim Kostousov, MD Research Associate, Transfusion Medicine and Coagulation, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Texas Children’s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Eric B Staros, MD Associate Professor of Pathology, St Louis University School of Medicine; Director of Clinical Laboratories, Director of Cytopathology, Department of Pathology, St Louis University Hospital

Eric B Staros, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. De Stefano V, Rossi E, Paciaroni K, Leone G. Screening for inherited thrombophilia: indications and therapeutic implications. Haematologica. 2002 Oct. 87(10):1095-108. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  2. Bharadwaj J, Jayaraman C, Shrivastava R. Heparin resistance. Lab Hematol. 2003. 9(3):125-31. [Medline].

  3. Maclean PS, Tait RC. Hereditary and acquired antithrombin deficiency: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment options. Drugs. 2007. 67(10):1429-40. [Medline].

  4. Kobayashi T. Antithrombin abnormalities and perinatal management. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Aug. 6(5):559-66. [Medline].

  5. Khor B, Van Cott EM. Laboratory tests for antithrombin deficiency. Am J Hematol. 2010 Dec. 85(12):947-50. [Medline].

  6. Javela K, Engelbarth S, Hiltunen L, Mustonen P, Puurunen M. Great discrepancy in antithrombin activity measured using five commercially available functional assays. Thromb Res. 2013 Jul. 132(1):132-7. [Medline].

  7. Kovács B, Bereczky Z, Oláh Z, et al. The superiority of anti-FXa assay over anti-FIIa assay in detecting heparin-binding site antithrombin deficiency. Am J Clin Pathol. 2013 Nov. 140(5):675-9. [Medline].

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