- Author: Anas K Gremida, MD; Chief Editor: Thomas M Wheeler, MD more...
The reference range for prolactin in females is as follows:
- Nongravid/nonlactating: 2-29 ng/mL
- Gravid: 10-209 ng/mL (third trimester)
The reference range for prolactin in males is 2-18 ng/mL.
Conditions associated with prolactin deficiency include anterior pituitary dysfunction secondary to the following:
- Postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome)
- Extrapituitary tumor
- Treatment of pituitary/extrapituitary tumor
- Parasellar disease
Collection and Panels
Specifics for collection and panels are as follows:
- Specimen type: Blood serum
- Container: Vacutainer, red/black top
- Collection method: Venipuncture
- Specimen volume: 0.6 mL
- Other instructions: Collect specimen within 3-4 hours of awakening
Related tests are as follows:
- Luteinizing hormone (LH)
- Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
- Growth hormone
Prolactin is pituitary hormone that stimulates breast development and milk production in women. Prolactin has no known normal function in men.[1, 2, 3, 4]
An image depicting prolactin can be seen below.
Indications for testing of serum prolactin include the following:
- Evaluation of galactorrhea
- Evaluation of headache and visual field deficits
- Evaluation of pituitary tumors
- Evaluation of male and female infertility
- Evaluation of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea
- Evaluation of erectile dysfunction
- Evaluation of hypogonadism
- Monitoring therapy of prolactinoma and detecting recurrences
Hyperprolactinemia may also be associated with the following:
- Breast stimulation (transient)
- Renal disease
Hyperprolactinemia may also be associated with the following drugs:
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- H2 blockers
Segu VB. Prolactinoma. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/124634-overview. November 2, 2015; Accessed: December 11, 2015.
Benson CT. Prolactin Deficiency. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/124526-overview. June 10, 2014; Accessed: December 11, 2015.
Joustra SD, Roelfsema F, Endert E, Ballieux BE, van Trotsenburg AS, Fliers E, et al. Pituitary Hormone Secretion Profiles in IGSF1 Deficiency Syndrome. Neuroendocrinology. 2015 Aug 25. [Medline].
Porta F, Ponzone A, Spada M. Short prolactin profile for monitoring treatment in BH4 deficiency. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2015 May. 19 (3):360-3. [Medline].