Miscarriages Caused by Blood Coagulation Protein or Platelet Deficits Treatment & Management

  • Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: Perumal Thiagarajan, MD  more...
Updated: Oct 21, 2015

Approach Considerations

Because fetal loss associated with bleeding disorders is thought to occur due to interference with adequate fibrin formation for implantation of the fertilized ovum into the uterine lining, the authors choose not to use vigorous preconception antithrombotic therapy in those patients with thrombophilia; rather, we use low-dose aspirin at 81 mg/d. This issue may be of theoretical concern only, in view of the report by Sher et al, who used preconception low-dose heparin with a high success rate for in vitro fertilization techniques.[70] However, the authors remain concerned and continue to advocate low-dose aspirin as the preconception antithrombotic therapy in most instances.[1, 4, 19]

The regimen of a postconception addition of fixed, low-dose heparin at 5000 units every 12 hours is empirical, but higher doses seem to be associated with bleeding and a lower success rate.[71] It may be that even lower doses of heparin might suffice.

The authors do not advocate using corticosteroid therapy in this patient population, based upon the negative experience of others in fetal wastage syndrome and the authors' own experience of using steroids in conjunction with antithrombotics in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) and other types of thrombosis, wherein the corticosteroid use could be shown to lower antiphospholipid antibody titers but failed to abort thrombotic events.[1, 19, 20, 21, 37, 38, 39] In addition, steroid use in patients with APLS is considered possibly detrimental.[35]

Various treatment programs have been used for women with APLS (anticardiolipin antibodies or lupus anticoagulants) and fetal wastage syndrome; however, many of these studies have examined only very small populations or failed to distinguish between primary or secondary APLS in the information provided. Brown reported a 90% failure rate (miscarriage) among untreated women,[72] Perino et al reported a 93% failure rate in untreated women,[73] and Many et al also reported a similar failure rate in untreated patients.[74]

Lubbe and Liggins noted an 80% successful term pregnancy rate in a small group of women with use of prednisone and ASA[75] ; a similar success rate with this regimen was noted by Lin.[76] Cowchuck et al noted a 75% success rate with prednisone alone or with ASA alone, but the investigators also noted more undesirable effects in the prednisone-treated population.[77] Landy et al, reported a 90% success rate in a small population with either ASA alone or with prednisone alone.[78] However, Many et al only noted a 43% successful term pregnancy rate with ASA and prednisone,[74] and Semprini et al noted only a 14% success rate with prednisone alone.[79]

Several studies have assessed the role of postconception addition of heparin; however, most have used higher doses than used in the authors' population. Rosove et al reported a 93% success rate with dose-adjusted subcutaneous (SC) heparin[71] ; the mean heparin doses were about 25,000 U/d. Kutteh noted a success rate of 76% in a population of 25 patients treated with ASA plus dose-adjusted SC heparin[80] ; the mean heparin dose was 26,000 U/d. Many et al reported that patients treated with prednisone plus aspirin and heparin at 5000 U twice a day had a better outcome (69%) than did those who were treated with aspirin plus prednisone (43%) or with prednisone alone (7%).[74]

The authors' results suggest that fixed low-dose heparin is more effective than high-dose, dose-adjusted regimens[1, 19] ; more than 98% of the authors' RMS population with APLS or other prothrombotic propensity had a normal term delivery. Higher doses of heparin may somehow contribute to adverse outcomes, such as small periplacental hemorrhages.

Parke reported on the combination of low-dose heparin used in conjunction with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).[81] Her success rate, however, was only 27%, suggesting that IVIG has little role in antiphospholipid fetal wastage syndrome.


Evaluation and Treatment Protocol

Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex Thrombosis Hemostasis Clinical Center Experience

Over the past 5 years, the authors have carefully assessed 351 women referred for thrombosis and hemostasis evaluation after recurrent miscarriages. In the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW Metroplex), composed of a population of about 6 million, a flow protocol is followed to maximize success and to keep the costs of evaluation for the etiology of RMS and infertility at a minimum while providing the best chances for defining an etiology and, thus, providing ideal therapy for a successful term-pregnancy outcome.[1, 3, 19] This protocol is presented in the image below.

Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW Metroplex) flow p Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW Metroplex) flow protocol.

In all instances, women with RMS and infertility are first seen by an obstetrician or reproductive specialist. Anatomic defects and hormonal defects are assessed and, if found, the workup stops at this point and treatment is initiated (about 25% of all women). If no anatomic or hormonal defect is found, the patient is then seen by referral for hemostasis evaluation; the positive yield among this selected population is about 92%. If these evaluation findings are negative (about 8%), then, if the patient desires, chromosomal evaluation is initiated (about a 7% yield).

Most of the obstetricians and reproductive specialists in the DFW Metroplex refer patients after two or more miscarriages; however, some specialists refer after one miscarriage in the face of a positive patient family history for miscarriage; occasionally, patients request a workup after only one miscarriage. The authors' practice has been to accommodate the desires of the patient after discussing the costs and other implications of evaluation.

At the time of this writing, all 322 patients with a defect have been monitored for at least 15 months; their results have been analyzed in detail, with the summary presented below.

The mean age of the patients referred for a hemostasis evaluation is 33.3 years, the mean number of miscarriages before referral is 2.9 (range = 2-9), and the percentage found to have a hemostasis defect is 92% (322 of 351). See Table 1, below.

Table 1. Characteristics of the First 351 Women Referred for Hemostasis Evaluation (Open Table in a new window)

Patient Characteristics (All 351 Patients) Mean Standard Deviation Maximum Minimum
Age, y 33.3 5.63 49 18
Number of Miscarriages 2.9 2.39 9 2

All patients underwent a thorough evaluation for thrombophilia and, when indicated, a hemorrhagic disorder. Of the 351 patients, 29 (8%) had no defect. Of the remaining 322 patients, 10 (3%) had a bleeding disorder: three (1%) with platelet dysfunction, one (0.3%) with factor XIII deficiency, three (1%) with von Willebrand disease, and three (1%) with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome.

The remainder of the patients had a thrombophilia, as follows:

  • Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS): 195 patients (60%)
  • Sticky platelet syndrome: 64 (20%)
  • 5,10-Methyltetrahydrofolate reductase: (5,10-MTHFR) mutation: 38 (12%)
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) polymorphism (most commonly polymorphisms [4G/5G or 4G/4G]): 23 (7.1%)
  • Protein S deficiency: 12 (3.7%)
  • Factor V Leiden: 12 (3.7%)
  • Antithrombin deficiency: Three (1%)
  • Heparin cofactor II deficiency: Three (1%)
  • Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) deficiency: Three (1%)
  • Protein C deficiency: Six (2%)

A total of 364 defects were found in the 312 patients with thrombophilia; thus, several had two, and a few had three, separate defects.

As has been found by most other investigators, the most common defect found in RMS has been APLS; however, unlike some groups, the authors assess for all phospholipid antibody subgroups, including the following:

  • Antiphosphatidylserine
  • Antiphosphatidylethanolamine
  • Antiphosphatidylglycerol
  • Antiphosphatidic acid
  • Antiphosphatidylcholine
  • Antiphosphatidylinositol
  • Anti–annexin-V antibody
  • B2GP1
  • Hexagonal phospholipid
  • Lupus anticoagulant (by dilute Russell viper venom test [dRVVT], with correction by nonplatelet-derived phospholipid to avoid false-positive results)
  • Anticardiolipin antibody (all three idiotypes: IgG, IgA, IgM)

Of note, by including all antiphospholipid subgroups, 29% of patients are found to have a subgroup antiphospholipid antibody but no anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant; thus, 29% of patients would remain undiagnosed if an assessment of these subgroups were not performed. Interestingly, this finding is about the same as that noted in young-age patients (< 51 y) with thrombotic stroke.[82]

The particulars of the patients with APLS in the authors' population, with demonstration of the idiotypes found, are summarized in Table 2, below.

Table 2. Clotting Disorders Found in the Authors' Population (Open Table in a new window)

Antiphospholipid Found Patients With APLS, %
ACLA-IgG only 32.6
ACLA-IgM only 23.4
ACLA-IgA only 7
ACLA-IgG + IgM 3
ACLA-IgG + IgA 1
ACLA IgA + IgM 0
Lupus anticoagulant only 2
ACLA + lupus anticoagulant 2
Subgroup Only (No ACLA or lupus anticoagulant present)  
Antiphosphatidylserine 4
Antiphosphatidylinositol 2
Antiphosphatidylethanolamine 5
Antiphosphatidic acid 5
Antiphosphatidylcholine 7
Antiphosphatidylglycerol 1
Anti-annexin-V 5
B2GP1 0
Hexagonal phospholipid 0
(9 Patients had ACLA + a subgroup antibody)  
Total with only a subgroup antibody  
APLS patients with only a subgroup antibody, % 29

Treatment of thrombophilia

All patients with a thrombophilic defect were treated with preconception aspirin at 81 mg/d, and at documentation of conception, the women were treated with the addition of subcutaneous (SC) unfractionated heparin at 5000 U q12 hours by self-injection (first 120 patients) or SC low–molecular-weight (LMW) heparin (dalteparin [Fragmin], 5000 U q24 h by self-injection; subsequent 192 patients). Both drugs (aspirin and heparin or LMW heparin) are used to term.

All patients are instructed in the administration of heparin injections; they are also informed of all important side effects of heparin therapy and are extensively informed of the benefits and risks of heparin/LMW heparin therapy, including the fact that side effects, although rare, include the following:

  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) with and without paradoxical thrombosis/thromboembolism (HITT)
  • Osteoporosis
  • Mild to moderate alopecia
  • Skin and allergic reactions, including erythema and itching, at injection sites
  • Eosinophilia (of little clinical consequence)
  • Bleeding

Patients are also informed that about 5-10% of patients develop a transient transaminasemia during heparin/LMW heparin therapy, but this is without any known adverse clinical consequences.

Patients receive the following instructions about self-administration of SC medication:

  • The anterior or lateral thighs are the ideal injection sites
  • Injection sites should be rotated with every injection
  • Each injection is likely to produce a bruise about 0.5-4.0 cm in diameter
  • Injection pain, if experienced, can usually be alleviated by applying a small piece of ice at the site for 20 seconds before and 20 seconds after the injection is given

All patients are instructed to return immediately if they note dark or black areas of the injection site, which are potentially indicative of skin necrosis. The methods of follow-up are summarized in the list below.

The DFW Metroplex Cooperative RMS Group follow-up protocol for fetal wastage syndrome that is associated with hypercoagulable blood protein/platelet defects is as follows:

  • Aspirin: 81 mg/d, start preconception (time of diagnosis)
  • Heparin: 5000 U SC q12h immediately postconception (added to aspirin, both to term),
  • or
  • Dalteparin: 5000 U SC q24h immediately postconception (added to aspirin, both to term)
  • Calcium: 500 mg/d by mouth (PO)
  • Prenatal vitamins
  • Iron: 1 tab/d PO
  • Folic acid: 1 mg/d PO

Laboratory assessment

  • Complete blood cell (CBC)/platelet count and heparin level (anti–factor Xa method) weekly for 4 weeks; then CBC/platelet count and heparin level monthly to term
  • Sonogram initially and frequently to term
  • Fetal activity chart daily, starting at 28 weeks
  • Biophysical profile and color Doppler flow ultrasonography of umbilical artery at 32, 34, 36, and 38 weeks
  • Delivery at the discretion of the obstetrician
  • At delivery (or loss), send the placenta for pathologic analysis and search for placental vascular thrombosis

Clinicians considering the use of LMW heparin in pregnancy should be made aware of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety alert warning regarding the use of enoxaparin (Lovenox) in pregnancy and women of childbearing age.


All of the authors' 315 patients with a thrombophilic defect were treated with the aforementioned regimen of preconception low-dose aspirin plus postconception thromboprophylactic (low-dose) SC heparin or dalteparin. Patients with MTHFR mutations were also treated with folic acid at 5 mg/d plus pyridoxine at 50 mg/d.

Four pregnancy losses (2.6%) occurred in patients receiving antithrombophilic prophylaxis. One loss was during the second trimester and accompanied a cholecystectomy, and one loss was during the first trimester in a patient with APLS and a fetal chromosomal defect; neither of these were considered treatment failures. However, two patients suffered first-trimester loss, and placental thrombi and infarcts were present. Thus, those two losses clearly represented treatment failure.

The overall success in treating patients with RMS with procoagulant/platelet defects in the authors' program is, therefore, 99% (313/315) with respect to normal term delivery. All patients were monitored for a minimum of 3 months after delivery. No patient sustained a thrombotic episode during the pregnancy, delivery, or postpartum period except the two patients who experienced treatment failures, both of whom had placental vascular thrombi. In addition, no patient developed HIT/thrombocytopenia, and none had a clinically significant hemorrhage.

Almost all patients developed small ecchymoses at the injection sites, but these findings were considered insignificant by both the patient and physician. Ten percent of patients developed eosinophilia, which had abated by 3 months postpartum, and 7% developed mild to moderate elevations of hepatic transaminases; these laboratory findings also returned to normal by 3 months postpartum. Per the obstetricians, reproductive medicine specialists, and involved pediatricians, no neonatal or pediatric problems were associated with the administered therapy. No patient sustained a fracture during or after treatment.

Patients with bleeding disorders were not treated. No patient had a significant hemorrhage during pregnancy or delivery. None required any blood product therapy.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

George Ansstas, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine

George Ansstas, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Ronald A Sacher, MB, BCh, FRCPC, DTM&H Professor, Internal Medicine and Pathology, Director, Hoxworth Blood Center, University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center

Ronald A Sacher, MB, BCh, FRCPC, DTM&H is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Blood Banks, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American Society of Hematology, College of American Pathologists, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, American Clinical and Climatological Association, International Society of Blood Transfusion

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: GSK Pharmaceuticals,Alexion,Johnson & Johnson Talecris,,Grifols<br/>Received honoraria from all the above companies for speaking and teaching.

Chief Editor

Perumal Thiagarajan, MD Professor, Department of Pathology and Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine; Director, Transfusion Medicine and Hematology Laboratory, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Perumal Thiagarajan, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of American Physicians, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, American Heart Association, American Society of Hematology, Royal College of Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Bick RL. Recurrent miscarriage syndrome and infertility caused by blood coagulation protein or platelet defects. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000 Oct. 14(5):1117-31. [Medline].

  2. Redline RW. Thrombophilia and placental pathology. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec. 49(4):885-94. [Medline].

  3. López Ramírez Y, Vivenes M, Miller A, et al. Prevalence of the coagulation factor XIII polymorphism Val34Leu in women with recurrent miscarriage. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Dec. 374(1-2):69-74. [Medline].

  4. Dossenbach-Glaninger A, van Trotsenburg M, Dossenbach M, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G/5G polymorphism and coagulation factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism: impaired fibrinolysis and early pregnancy loss. Clin Chem. 2003 Jul. 49(7):1081-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  5. Asahina T, Kobayashi T, Takeuchi K, Kanayama N. Congenital blood coagulation factor XIII deficiency and successful deliveries: a review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007 Apr. 62(4):255-60. [Medline].

  6. Matsubayashi H, Sugi T, Suzuki T, et al. Decreased factor XII activity is associated with recurrent IVF-ET failure. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008 Apr. 59(4):316-22. [Medline].

  7. Valnícek S, Vacl J, Mrázová M, et al. [Hemotherapeutic safeguarding of induced abortion in inborn proconvertin insufficiency (hemagglutination factor VII) using exchange plasmapheresis] [German]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1972 Jul 22. 94(29):931-5. [Medline].

  8. Nelson DB, Ness RB, Grisso JA, Cushman M. Influence of hemostatic factors on spontaneous abortion. Am J Perinatol. 2001 Jun. 18(4):195-201. [Medline].

  9. Slunský R. [Personal experiences with the antifibrinolytic PAMBA in obstetrics and gynecology] [German]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1970 Mar 21. 92(12):364-7. [Medline].

  10. Owen CA Jr, Henriksen RA, McDuffie FC, Mann KG. Prothrombin Quick. A newly identified dysprothrombinemia. Mayo Clin Proc. 1978 Jan. 53(1):29-33. [Medline].

  11. Pauer HU, Burfeind P, Köstering H, Emons G, Hinney B. Factor XII deficiency is strongly associated with primary recurrent abortions. Fertil Steril. 2003 Sep. 80(3):590-4. [Medline].

  12. Jones DW, Gallimore MJ, Winter M. Antibodies to factor XII: a possible predictive marker for recurrent foetal loss. Immunobiology. 2003. 207(1):43-6. [Medline].

  13. Sugi T, Makino T. Antiphospholipid antibodies and kininogens in pathologic pregnancies: a review. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2002 May. 47(5):283-8. [Medline].

  14. Iinuma Y, Sugiura-Ogasawara M, Makino A, Ozaki Y, Suzumori N, Suzumori K. Coagulation factor XII activity, but not an associated common genetic polymorphism (46C/T), is linked to recurrent miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2002 Feb. 77(2):353-6. [Medline].

  15. Yamada H, Kato EH, Ebina Y, et al. Factor XII deficiency in women with recurrent miscarriage. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2000. 49(2):80-3. [Medline].

  16. Evron S, Anteby SO, Brzezinsky A, Samueloff A, Eldor A. Congenital afibrinogenemia and recurrent early abortion: a case report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1985 May. 19(5):307-11. [Medline].

  17. Mammen EF. Congenital abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1974. 1:184.

  18. Bick RL. Antiphospholipid syndrome in pregnancy. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008 Feb. 22(1):107-20, vii. [Medline].

  19. Bick RL, Laughlin HR, Cohen B, et al. Fetal wastage syndrome due to blood protein/platelet defects: results of prevalence studies and treatment outcome with low-dose heparin and low-dose aspirin. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 1995. 1:286.

  20. Bick RL, Baker WF. Antiphospholipid syndrome and thrombosis. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1999. 25(3):333-50. [Medline].

  21. Bick RL. The antiphospholipid thrombosis syndromes: a common multidisciplinary medical problem. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 1997. 3:270.

  22. Scott JR, Rote NS, Branch DW. Immunologic aspects of recurrent abortion and fetal death. Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Oct. 70(4):645-56. [Medline].

  23. van den Boogaard E, Cohn DM, Korevaar JC, Dawood F, Vissenberg R, Middeldorp S, et al. Number and sequence of preceding miscarriages and maternal age for the prediction of antiphospholipid syndrome in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2013 Jan. 99(1):188-92. [Medline].

  24. Chen L, Quan S, Ou XH, Kong L. Decreased endometrial vascularity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies-associated recurrent miscarriage during midluteal phase. Fertil Steril. 2012 Dec. 98(6):1495-502.e1. [Medline].

  25. Schved JF, Gris JC, Neveu S, Dupaigne D, Mares P. Factor XII congenital deficiency and early spontaneous abortion. Fertil Steril. 1989 Aug. 52(2):335-6. [Medline].

  26. Klein M, Rosen A, Kyrle P, Beck A. [Obstetrical management of dysfibrinogenemia with increased thrombophilia] [German]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1992 Jul. 52(7):442-4. [Medline].

  27. Barkagan ZS, Belykh SI. [Protein C deficiency and the multi-thrombotic syndrome associated ith pregnancy and abortion] [Russian]. Gematol Transfuziol. 1992 Sep-Oct. 37(9-10):35-7. [Medline].

  28. Hellgren M, Tengborn L, Abildgaard U. Pregnancy in women with congenital antithrombin III deficiency: experience of treatment with heparin and antithrombin. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1982. 14(2):127-41. [Medline].

  29. Simioni P, Lazzaro AR, Coser E, Salmistraro G, Girolami A. Hereditary heparin cofactor II deficiency and thrombosis: report of six patients belonging to two separate kindreds. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1990 Oct. 1(4-5):351-6. [Medline].

  30. Satoh A, Suzuki K, Takayama E, et al. Detection of anti-annexin IV and V antibodies in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 1999 Aug. 26(8):1715-20. [Medline].

  31. Gris JC, Neveu S, Mares P, et al. Plasma fibrinolytic activators and their inhibitors in women suffering from early recurrent abortion of unknown etiology. J Lab Clin Med. 1993 Nov. 122(5):606-15. [Medline].

  32. Glueck CJ, Wang P, Fontaine RN, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor activity: an independent risk factor for the high miscarriage rate during pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Metabolism. 1999 Dec. 48(12):1589-95. [Medline].

  33. Sokol J, Biringer K, Skerenova M, Hasko M, Bartosova L, Stasko J, et al. Platelet aggregation abnormalities in patients with fetal losses: the GP6 gene polymorphism. Fertil Steril. 2012 Nov. 98(5):1170-4. [Medline].

  34. Bick RL, Hoppensteadt D. Recurrent miscarriage syndrome and infertility due to blood coagulation protein/platelet defects: a review and update. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2005 Jan. 11(1):1-13. [Medline].

  35. Khamashta MA. Management of thrombosis and pregnancy loss in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus. 1998. 7 suppl 2:S162-5. [Medline].

  36. Amengual O, Atsumi T, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Advances in antiphospholipid (Hughes') syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1998 Jan. 27(1):61-6. [Medline].

  37. Bick RL. Antiphospholipid thrombosis syndromes: etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Int J Hematol. 1997 Apr. 65(3):193-213. [Medline].

  38. Bick RL, Baker WF Jr. The antiphospholipid and thrombosis syndromes. Med Clin North Am. 1994 May. 78(3):667-84. [Medline].

  39. Bick RL. Recurrent miscarriage syndrome and infertility caused by blood coagulation protein/platelet defects. Bick RL, Frenkel EP, Baker WF, Sarode R, eds. Hematologic Complications in Obstetrics, Pregnancy, and Gynecology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2006. 55-74.

  40. Festin MR, Limson GM, Maruo T. Autoimmune causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Kobe J Med Sci. 1997 Oct. 43(5):143-57. [Medline].

  41. Roussev RG, Kaider BD, Price DE, Coulam CB. Laboratory evaluation of women experiencing reproductive failure. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1996 Apr. 35(4):415-20. [Medline].

  42. Oshiro BT, Silver RM, Scott JR, Yu H, Branch DW. Antiphospholipid antibodies and fetal death. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Apr. 87(4):489-93. [Medline].

  43. Granger KA, Farquharson RG. Obstetric outcome in antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus. 1997. 6(6):509-13. [Medline].

  44. Borrelli AL, Brillante M, Borzacchiello C, Berlingieri P. Hemocoagulative pathology and immunological recurrent abortion. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1997. 24(1):39-40. [Medline].

  45. Hellan M, Kühnel E, Speiser W, Lechner K, Eichinger S. Familial lupus anticoagulant: a case report and review of the literature. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1998 Mar. 9(2):195-200. [Medline].

  46. Ogasawara M, Aoki K, Matsuura E, Sasa H, Yagami Y. Anti beta 2 glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss: prevalence and clinical significance. Lupus. 1996 Dec. 5(6):587-92. [Medline].

  47. Zangari M, Lockwood CJ, Scher J, Rand JH. Prothrombin activation fragment (F1.2) is increased in pregnant patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Res. 1997 Feb 1. 85(3):177-83. [Medline].

  48. Mitic G, Novakov Mikic A, Povazan L, Mitreski A, Kopitovic V, Vejnovic T. Thromboprophylaxis implementation during pregnancy in women with recurrent foetal losses and thrombophilia. Med Pregl. 2011 Sep-Oct. 64(9-10):471-5. [Medline].

  49. McNamee K, Dawood F, Farquharson RG. Thrombophilia and early pregnancy loss. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Nov 11. [Medline].

  50. Aznar J, Villa P, España F, et al. Activated protein C resistance phenotype in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. J Lab Clin Med. 1997 Aug. 130(2):202-8. [Medline].

  51. Schultz DR. Antiphospholipid antibodies: basic immunology and assays. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Apr. 26(5):724-39. [Medline].

  52. Amengual O, Atsumi T, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. The role of the tissue factor pathway in the hypercoagulable state in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Haemost. 1998 Feb. 79(2):276-81. [Medline].

  53. Martini A, Ravelli A. The clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibodies. Ann Med. 1997 Apr. 29(2):159-63. [Medline].

  54. Bussen SS, Steck T. Thyroid antibodies and their relation to antithrombin antibodies, anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions (antithyroid, anticardiolipin and antithrombin autoantibodies and lupus anticoagulant in habitual aborters). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1997 Aug. 74(2):139-43. [Medline].

  55. Rand JH, Wu XX. Antibody-mediated disruption of the annexin-V antithrombotic shield: a new mechanism for thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Haemost. 1999 Aug. 82(2):649-55. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  56. Rand JH, Wu XX, Andree HA, et al. Antiphospholipid antibodies accelerate plasma coagulation by inhibiting annexin-V binding to phospholipids: a "lupus procoagulant" phenomenon. Blood. 1998 Sep 1. 92(5):1652-60. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  57. Rauch J. Lupus anticoagulant antibodies: recognition of phospholipid-binding protein complexes. Lupus. 1998. 7 suppl 2:S29-31. [Medline].

  58. Rote NS, Vogt E, DeVere G, Obringer AR, Ng AK. The role of placental trophoblast in the pathophysiology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1998 Feb. 39(2):125-36. [Medline].

  59. Vogt E, Ng AK, Rote NS. Antiphosphatidylserine antibody removes annexin-V and facilitates the binding of prothrombin at the surface of a choriocarcinoma model of trophoblast differentiation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Oct. 177(4):964-72. [Medline].

  60. Gris JC, Ripart-Neveu S, Maugard C, et al. Respective evaluation of the prevalence of haemostasis abnormalities in unexplained primary early recurrent miscarriages. The Nimes Obstetricians and Haematologists (NOHA) Study. Thromb Haemost. 1997 Jun. 77(6):1096-103. [Medline].

  61. Tal J, Schliamser LM, Leibovitz Z, Ohel G, Attias D. A possible role for activated protein C resistance in patients with first and second trimester pregnancy failure. Hum Reprod. 1999 Jun. 14(6):1624-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  62. Kutteh WH, Park VM, Deitcher SR. Hypercoagulable state mutation analysis in white patients with early first-trimester recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 1999 Jun. 71(6):1048-53. [Medline].

  63. Bokarewa MI, Bremme K, Blombäck M. Arg506-Gln mutation in factor V and risk of thrombosis during pregnancy. Br J Haematol. 1996 Feb. 92(2):473-8. [Medline].

  64. Brenner B, Mandel H, Lanir N, et al. Activated protein C resistance can be associated with recurrent fetal loss. Br J Haematol. 1997 Jun. 97(3):551-4. [Medline].

  65. Rai R, Regan L, Hadley E, Dave M, Cohen H. Second-trimester pregnancy loss is associated with activated C resistance. Br J Haematol. 1996 Feb. 92(2):489-90. [Medline].

  66. Grandone E, Margaglione M, Colaizzo D, et al. Factor V Leiden is associated with repeated and recurrent unexplained fetal losses. Thromb Haemost. 1997 May. 77(5):822-4. [Medline].

  67. Ridker PM, Miletich JP, Buring JE, et al. Factor V Leiden mutation as a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Jun 15. 128(12 pt 1):1000-3. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  68. Poort SR, Rosendaal FR, Reitsma PH, Bertina RM. A common genetic variation in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increase in venous thrombosis. Blood. 1996 Nov 15. 88(10):3698-703. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  69. Brenner B, Sarig G, Weiner Z, et al. Thrombophilic polymorphisms are common in women with fetal loss without apparent cause. Thromb Haemost. 1999 Jul. 82(1):6-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  70. Sher G, Feinman M, Zouves C, et al. High fecundity rates following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in antiphospholipid antibody seropositive women treated with heparin and aspirin. Hum Reprod. 1994 Dec. 9(12):2278-83. [Medline].

  71. Rosove MH, Tabsh K, Wasserstrum N, et al. Heparin therapy for pregnant women with lupus anticoagulant or anticardiolipin antibodies. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Apr. 75(4):630-4. [Medline].

  72. Brown HL. Antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent pregnancy loss. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Mar. 34(1):17-26. [Medline].

  73. Perino A, Barba G, Cimino C, et al. Immunological problems in the recurrent abortion syndrome. Acta Eur Fertil. 1989 Jul-Aug. 20(4):199-202. [Medline].

  74. Many A, Pauzner R, Carp H, Langevitz P, Martinowitz U. Treatment of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies during pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1992 Oct-Dec. 28(3-4):216-8. [Medline].

  75. Lubbe WF, Liggins GC. Role of lupus anticoagulant and autoimmunity in recurrent fetal loss. Semin Reprod Endocrinol. 1988. 6:181-90.

  76. Lin QD. [Investigation of the association between autoantibodies and recurrent abortions] [Chinese]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 1993 Nov. 28(11):674-7, 702. [Medline].

  77. Cowchock FS, Reece EA, Balaban D, Branch DW, Plouffe L. Repeated fetal losses associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: a collaborative randomized trial comparing prednisone with low-dose heparin treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 May. 166(5):1318-23. [Medline].

  78. Landy HJ, Kessler C, Kelly WK, Weingold AB. Obstetric performance in patients with the lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin antibodies. Am J Perinatol. 1992 May. 9(3):146-51. [Medline].

  79. Semprini AE, Vucetich A, Garbo S, Agostoni G, Pardi G. Effect of prednisone and heparin treatment in 14 patients with poor reproductive efficiency related to lupus anticoagulant. Fetal Ther. 1989. 4 suppl 1:73-6. [Medline].

  80. Kutteh WH. Antiphospholipid antibody-associated recurrent pregnancy loss: treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin is superior to low-dose aspirin alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 May. 174(5):1584-9. [Medline].

  81. Parke A. The role of IVIG in the management of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent pregnancy losses. Clin Rev Allergy. 1992 Spring-Summer. 10(1-2):105-18. [Medline].

  82. Toschi V, Motta A, Castelli C, et al. High prevalence of antiphosphatidylinositol antibodies in young patients with cerebral ischemia of undetermined cause. Stroke. 1998 Sep. 29(9):1759-64. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  83. España F, Villa P, Mira Y, et al. Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion. Haematologica. 1999 Jan. 84(1):80-4. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Defects causing recurrent miscarriage.
Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW Metroplex) flow protocol.
Table 1. Characteristics of the First 351 Women Referred for Hemostasis Evaluation
Patient Characteristics (All 351 Patients) Mean Standard Deviation Maximum Minimum
Age, y 33.3 5.63 49 18
Number of Miscarriages 2.9 2.39 9 2
Table 2. Clotting Disorders Found in the Authors' Population
Antiphospholipid Found Patients With APLS, %
ACLA-IgG only 32.6
ACLA-IgM only 23.4
ACLA-IgA only 7
ACLA-IgG + IgM 3
ACLA-IgG + IgA 1
ACLA IgA + IgM 0
Lupus anticoagulant only 2
ACLA + lupus anticoagulant 2
Subgroup Only (No ACLA or lupus anticoagulant present)  
Antiphosphatidylserine 4
Antiphosphatidylinositol 2
Antiphosphatidylethanolamine 5
Antiphosphatidic acid 5
Antiphosphatidylcholine 7
Antiphosphatidylglycerol 1
Anti-annexin-V 5
B2GP1 0
Hexagonal phospholipid 0
(9 Patients had ACLA + a subgroup antibody)  
Total with only a subgroup antibody  
APLS patients with only a subgroup antibody, % 29
Medscape Consult
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.