Central Venous Access Via External Jugular Vein Periprocedural Care
- Author: Rick McPheeters, DO, FAAEM; Chief Editor: Vincent Lopez Rowe, MD more...
The equipment needed for central venous cannulation is widely available as a prepackaged kit (see the image below).
The basic materials include the following:
Povidone or chlorhexidine solutions to swab and prepare the venipuncture site
Sterile drapes and towels
Gown, mask, and cap
27-gauge needle with 2- to 5-mL syringe for injecting local anesthetic
20- to 22-gauge needle with 10-mL syringe to access the external jugular vein (EJV)
16-gauge Angiocath to cannulate the EJV
Flexible guide wire with a maximum diameter of max 0.35 mm and with a 3 mm or less radius J-tip
No. 11 scalpel
Dilator device for the skin and soft tissue overlying the vein
Single or multilumen catheterization
Silk or nylon sutures
Dressings to include plastic tape, antibiotic patch, gauze pads
Because this is initially peripheral venous access, local anesthesia by infiltration is generally unnecessary and is not recommended, because it can obscure the surface anatomy and thereby render the venipuncture more difficult. If time permits, a topical anesthetic can be applied prior to puncturing the skin. However, local anesthetic should be used prior to use of incision and dilator.
Sedation or analgesia may be necessary for certain patients, such as those with procedural anxiety or differing levels of anxiolysis. Of note, 10-20 mg of preservative free lidocaine can be slowly infused to diminish discomfort associated with passing the guide wire and catheter.
The patient should be positioned so as to optimize venous distention and thus allow easier cannulation. Have the patient lay supine, with 10-30° of Trendelenburg. Tilt the head contralaterally from the vein being cannulated. Stand at the head of the bed.
Monitoring and Follow-up
A cardiac monitor should be used to observe for cardiac dysrhythmia that could arise if catheter enters the right atrium.
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