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Bladder Stones Medication

  • Author: Joseph Basler, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
 
Updated: Nov 11, 2014
 

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to dissolve the stone, reduce morbidity, and prevent complications.

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Urinary Alkalinizing Agents

Class Summary

The only potentially effective medical treatment for bladder calculi is urinary alkalization for the dissolution of uric acid stones. However, overly aggressive alkalization may lead to calcium phosphate deposits on the stone surface, making further medical therapy ineffective.[8]

Potassium citrate (Urocit K)

 

Stone dissolution may be possible if the urinary pH can be made greater than or equal to 6.5. Potassium citrate 60 mEq/day is the treatment of choice.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Joseph Basler, MD, PhD Thomas P Ball Residency Education Professor, Urology Residency Program Director, Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio; Chief, Section of Urology, Audie Murphy Veterans Affairs Hospital

Joseph Basler, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Urological Association, Society of University Urologists, SWOG, Texas Medical Association, Society for Basic Urologic Research, Society of Urologic Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Joel A Leon-Becerril, MD 

Joel A Leon-Becerril, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, Pan American Trauma Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Professor of Urology, Director, Center for Laparoscopy and Endourology, Department of Surgery, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, Society of University Urologists, Association of Military Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons, American Urological Association, Endourological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Christopher H Cantrill, MD Resident Physician, Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio

Christopher H Cantrill, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Clinical Urologists, American Urological Association, and Endourological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Aldo Ghobriel, MD Staff Physician, Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio

Aldo Ghobriel, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association and American Urological Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Leonard Gabriel Gomella, MD, FACS The Bernard W Godwin Professor of Prostate Cancer Chairman, Department of Urology, Associate Director of Clinical Affairs, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Leonard Gabriel Gomella, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Research, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery, American Urological Association, Sigma Xi, Society for Basic Urologic Research, Society of University Urologists, and Society of Urologic Oncology

Disclosure: GSK Consulting fee Consulting; Astra Zeneca Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Watson Pharmaceuticals Consulting fee Consulting

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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Multiple laminated bladder calculi in patient with neurogenic bladder.
Endoscopic view of spiculated "jack" stone with erythematous bladder mucosa in background.
Large calculus visible on plain film of intravenous pyelogram performed for hematuria.
Ex vivo photograph of bladder stone.
Two delicate "jack" stones removed before open prostatectomy.
Bladder stone accretion on matrix. Patient had history of urinary tract infections and presented with irritative voiding symptoms and microscopic hematuria. Upper-tract evaluation findings were normal, but cystoscopy demonstrated calculus. Upon laser treatment of stone, soft matrix core was encountered beneath glistening outer core. Exposed matrix core is visible in crevices.
Bladder stone accretion on matrix. Patient had history of urinary tract infections and presented with irritative voiding symptoms and microscopic hematuria. Upper-tract evaluation findings were normal, but cystoscopy demonstrated calculus. Upon laser treatment of stone, soft matrix core was encountered beneath glistening outer core. Exposed matrix core is visible in crevices.
Laser destruction of stone. Note small lacuna generated in stone as result of laser energy. At lower power settings, stone can be quickly reduced to dust.
Layered nature of bladder calculus exposed as laser strips away surface.
 
 
 
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