Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Filariasis Treatment & Management

  • Author: Siddharth Wayangankar, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
Updated: Dec 10, 2015

Approach Considerations

The medical management of a filarial infection should be specific and based on the microfilariae isolated or antigenemia detected.

Mass drug administration reduces the transmission of filarial infection and disease morbidity by decreasing the burden of microfilaremia, resulting in suboptimal levels for transmission by disease vectors.[44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49]

For example, annual mass treatment with albendazole and ivermectin is employed to interrupt the transmission of W bancrofti. Since this species has no alternative hosts, this approach could theoretically result in eventual eradication of bancroftian filariasis.

One study evaluated the effect of higher dose and increased frequency (twice yearly) of albendazole-ivermectin therapy for W bancrofti and found that it resulted in complete microfilarial clearance, as well as a more sustained clearance than that resulting from standard-dose albendazole-ivermectin treatment.[50]

The effects of mass treatment on filariasis have reportedly been sustained for up to 6 years.[51, 52, 53, 54] No filariasis vaccine is currently available, but efforts to develop an effective one are under way.[55]


Lymphatic filariasis

Large hydroceles and scrotal elephantiasis can be managed with surgical excision. Correcting gross limb elephantiasis with surgery is less successful and may necessitate multiple procedures and skin grafting.


Nodulectomy with local anesthetic is a common treatment to reduce skin and eye complications.

Diet and activity

Fatty foods are restricted in individuals with proven chyluria that is associated with lymphatic filariasis.

Individuals with chronic lymphatic filariasis are encouraged to mobilize (with compression bandage support) the affected limb.


Avoidance of bites from insect vectors is usually not feasible for residents of endemic areas, but visitors to these regions should use insect repellent and mosquito nets.


To prevent inappropriate treatment, consult an infectious disease specialist in all cases of suspected filariasis outside of endemic nations. Other possible consultations include:

  • Urologist
  • Ophthalmologist
  • General surgeon
  • Plastic surgeon

Pharmacologic Therapy

Lymphatic filariasis

Patients with asymptomatic microfilaremia can be treated on an outpatient basis. Supervision of oral DEC therapy and provocation with postadministration observation is recommended for patient compliance with therapy and for the management of febrile reactions in heavily infected patients.[31]

Inpatient care may initially be required for adenolymphangitis (ADL) and chronic filariasis. Such care includes the use of antihistamines, steroids, pain relief, and intravenous antibiotics for secondary infections.


Steroids can be used to soften and reduce the swelling of lymphedematous tissues. Mild to moderate filarial lymphedema has been shown to improve with a 6-week course of doxycycline, independent of ongoing infection.[56]

Bed rest, limb elevation, and compression bandages traditionally have been used for the management of chronic lymphedema.

Chronic filariasis

Treatment of chronic filariasis does not change the prognosis, as irreversible fibrosis usually destroys lymphatic tissue. However, asymptomatic patients, hoping to diminish progression of the disease, still typically undergo treatment, although the benefit of this is unclear.[57]


In the treatment of chyluria, a special low-fat, high-protein diet supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides may prove beneficial. In addition, the sclerosing action conferred by diagnostic lymphangiography may plug the leak.

Secondary infection

Supportive care should include the prevention of secondary infection, especially in patients with advanced disease. Individuals with chronic infections should wash the affected area frequently, apply antiseptic creams to abrasions, keep their nails clean, wear comfortable footwear, and exercise the affected limb to aid lymphatic flow.


If DEC and suramin (currently the only drug in clinical use for onchocerciasis that is effective against adult worms) are used, inpatient care is recommended to monitor for reactions and complications of therapy.[28]

Moxidectin is being investigated as an alternative to ivermectin for the treatment of river blindness. This agent may shorten the number of annual treatments to 6.

Bancroftian filariasis

Ivermectin is now considered the drug of choice for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis. In the United States, it can be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); in endemic areas of the world, it is provided free by the Mectizan Donation Program. The addition of albendazole seems to improve response.[58, 59, 60, 61]

Six-week and 8-week courses of doxycycline have compared favorably with ivermectin plus albendazole.[62] Doxycycline therapy may be more readily available and may be better tolerated by some patients. It may also be capable of preventing or reversing lymphatic pathology.[63]

In one study, a 3-week course of doxycycline followed by a single dose of DEC was shown to be microfilaricidal.[63]

Findings have validated the use of single-dose regimens of ivermectin and DEC or albendazole for large-scale control and eradication programs aimed at reducing Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia, antigenemia, and clinical manifestations.[50, 64, 65, 66, 67]

M perstans infection

Because M perstans is resistant to standard antiparasitic treatment, doxycycline is sometimes used to eradicate Wolbachia, an endosymbiont found in most filarial species.[26, 68]

Doxycycline treatment typically kills or sterilizes the filarial nematode. In an open-label, randomized trial, Coulibaly et al recruited patients with M perstans infection from 4 African villages in Mali. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of doxycycline orally every day for 6 weeks or no treatment.[69]

At 12 months, 97% of patients who received doxycycline had no detectable blood levels of M perstans, compared with 16% of patients in the group that did not receive treatment. At 36 months, M perstans remained suppressed in 75% of patients who had received doxycycline.[69]

Long-Term Monitoring

Patient monitoring includes posttreatment follow-up for 12 months, with examination of peripheral blood and skin snips for microfilariae.

Observe and monitor oral therapeutic plans with DEC because compliance with therapy is poor and usually incomplete.

Patients with filariasis are, by default, at risk for other parasitic infections because areas endemic for bancroftian filariasis are also endemic for other parasites. After treatment, patients should be monitored for symptoms that are characteristic of parasitic infections.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Siddharth Wayangankar, MD, MPH Resident Physician, Department of Internal Medicine, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center

Siddharth Wayangankar, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Michael Stuart Bronze, MD David Ross Boyd Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Stewart G Wolf Endowed Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center; Master of the American College of Physicians; Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Medical Association, Oklahoma State Medical Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of Professors of Medicine, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Rhett L Jackson, MD Associate Professor and Vice Chair for Education, Department of Medicine, Director, Internal Medicine Residency Program, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine; Assistant Chief, Medicine Service, Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Hospital

Rhett L Jackson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD Professor, Chief of Infectious Disease, Program Director of Infectious Disease Fellowship, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, International Immunocompromised Host Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Rosemary Johann-Liang, MD Medical Officer, Infectious Diseases and Pediatrics, Division of Special Pathogens and Immunological Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration

Rosemary Johann-Liang, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, and Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Thomas M Kerkering, MD Chief of Infectious Diseases, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine

Thomas M Kerkering, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American Public Health Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Medical Society of Virginia, and Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Charles S Levy, MD Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Disease, George Washington University School of Medicine

Charles S Levy, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and Medical Society of the District of Columbia

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Michael D Nissen, MBBS, FRACP, FRCPA Associate Professor in Biomolecular, Biomedical Science & Health, Griffith University; Director of Infectious Diseases and Unit Head of Queensland Paediatric Infectious Laboratory, Sir Albert Sakzewski Viral Research Centre, Royal Children's Hospital

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Russell W Steele, MD Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Ochsner Children's Health Center; Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, and Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

Robert W Tolan Jr, MD Chief, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital at Saint Peter's University Hospital; Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Drexel University College of Medicine

Robert W Tolan Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Phi Beta Kappa, and Physicians for Social Responsibility

Disclosure: Novartis Honoraria Speaking and teaching

John Charles Walker, MSc, PhD Head, Department of Parasitology, Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia; Senior Lecturer, Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Australia

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Martin Weisse, MD Program Director, Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, West Virginia University

Martin Weisse, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Ambulatory Pediatric Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, and Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Knopp S, Steinmann P, Hatz C, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Nematode infections: filariases. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012 Jun. 26(2):359-81. [Medline].

  2. Okon OE, Iboh CI, Opara KN. Bancroftian filariasis among the Mbembe people of Cross River state, Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis. 2010 Jun. 47(2):91-6. [Medline].

  3. Addiss DG, Louis-Charles J, Roberts J, Leconte F, Wendt JM, Milord MD, et al. Feasibility and effectiveness of basic lymphedema management in Leogane, Haiti, an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Apr 20. 4(4):e668. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  4. Mathieu E, Dorkenoo A, Otogbe FK, Budge PJ, Sodahlon YK. A laboratory-based surveillance system for Wuchereria bancrofti in Togo: a practical model for resource-poor settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jun. 84(6):988-93. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  5. Uttah EC. Prevalence of endemic Bancroftian filariasis in the high altitude region of south-eastern Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011 Jun. 48(2):78-84. [Medline].

  6. Molyneux DH. Tropical lymphedemas--control and prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 29. 366(13):1169-71. [Medline].

  7. Meyrowitsch DW, Simonsen PE, Garred P, Dalgaard M, Magesa SM, Alifrangis M. Association between mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection in two communities in North-Eastern Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jan. 82(1):115-20. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  8. Rosenblatt JE. Laboratory diagnosis of infections due to blood and tissue parasites. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 1. 49(7):1103-8. [Medline].

  9. Subramanyam P, Palaniswamy SS. Lymphoscintigraphy in unilateral lower limb and scrotal lymphedema caused by filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Dec. 87(6):963-4. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Marcos LA, Arrospide N, Recuenco S, Cabezas C, Weil GJ, Fischer PU. Genetic characterization of atypical Mansonella (Mansonella) ozzardi microfilariae in human blood samples from northeastern Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Sep. 87(3):491-4. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  11. [Guideline] World Health Organization. Lymphatic filariasis: the disease and its control. Fifth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Filariasis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1992. 821:1-71. [Medline].

  12. Babu BV, Swain BK, Rath K. Impact of chronic lymphatic filariasis on quantity and quality of productive work among weavers in an endemic village from India. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 May. 11(5):712-7. [Medline].

  13. Ramaiah KD, Das PK, Michael E, Guyatt H. The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India. Parasitol Today. 2000 Jun. 16(6):251-3. [Medline].

  14. Witt C, Ottesen EA. Lymphatic filariasis: an infection of childhood. Trop Med Int Health. 2001 Aug. 6(8):582-606. [Medline].

  15. Wammes LJ, Hamid F, Wiria AE, Wibowo H, Sartono E, Maizels RM, et al. Regulatory T cells in human lymphatic filariasis: stronger functional activity in microfilaremics. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012. 6(5):e1655. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  16. Baird JB, Charles JL, Streit TG, Roberts JM, Addiss DG, Lammie PJ. Reactivity to bacterial, fungal, and parasite antigens in patients with lymphedema and elephantiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Feb. 66(2):163-9. [Medline].

  17. Tripathi PK, Mahajan RC, Malla N, Mewara A, Bhattacharya SM, Shenoy RK, et al. Circulating filarial antigen detection in brugian filariasis. Parasitology. 2015 Dec 9. 1-8. [Medline].

  18. King CL. Transmission intensity and human immune responses to lymphatic filariasis. Parasite Immunol. 2001 Jul. 23(7):363-71. [Medline].

  19. Lamb TJ, Le Goff L, Kurniawan A, Guiliano DB, Fenn K, Blaxter ML, et al. Most of the response elicited against Wolbachia surface protein in filarial nematode infection is due to the infective larval stage. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 1. 189(1):120-7. [Medline].

  20. Li J, Wei QK, Hu SL, Xiao T, Xu C, Liu X, et al. Establishment of lymphatic filarial specific IgG4 indirect ELISA detection method. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015. 8 (9):16496-16503. [Medline].

  21. Lammie PJ, Cuenco KT, Punkosdy GA. The pathogenesis of filarial lymphedema: is it the worm or is it the host?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec. 979:131-42; discussion 188-96. [Medline].

  22. Panda AK, Sahoo PK, Kerketta AS, Kar SK, Ravindran B, Satapathy AK. Human lymphatic filariasis: genetic polymorphism of endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor II correlates with development of chronic disease. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jul 15. 204(2):315-22. [Medline].

  23. Ottesen EA. The Wellcome Trust Lecture. Infection and disease in lymphatic filariasis: an immunological perspective. Parasitology. 1992. 104 Suppl:S71-9. [Medline].

  24. Taylor MJ, Hoerauf A. Wolbachia bacteria of filarial nematodes. Parasitol Today. 1999 Nov. 15(11):437-42. [Medline].

  25. Murugan K, Nataraj D, Madhiyazhagan P, et al. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms. Parasitol Res. 2015 Nov 28. [Medline].

  26. Tamarozzi F, Halliday A, Gentil K, Hoerauf A, Pearlman E, Taylor MJ. Onchocerciasis: the role of Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts in parasite biology, disease pathogenesis, and treatment. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011 Jul. 24(3):459-68. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  27. Zouré HG, Wanji S, Noma M, Amazigo UV, Diggle PJ, Tekle AH, et al. The geographic distribution of Loa loa in Africa: results of large-scale implementation of the Rapid Assessment Procedure for Loiasis (RAPLOA). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Jun. 5(6):e1210. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  28. Carme B, Boulesteix J, Boutes H, Puruehnce MF. Five cases of encephalitis during treatment of loiasis with diethylcarbamazine. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991 Jun. 44(6):684-90. [Medline].

  29. Eberhard ML, Sims AC, Bishop HS, Mathison BA, Hoffman RS. Ocular zoonotic onchocerca infection in a resident of Oregon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Dec. 87(6):1073-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  30. Eberhard ML, Ostovar GA, Chundu K, Hobohm D, Feiz-Erfan I, Mathison BA, et al. Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infection in a 22-month-old child in Arizona: first report in the United States and a review of the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Mar. 88(3):601-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Progress toward elimination of lymphatic filariasis--Togo, 2000--2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jul 29. 60(29):989-91. [Medline].

  32. Kazura J. Guerrant R, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 1999. Vol 2: 852.

  33. Pani SP, Yuvaraj J, Vanamail P, Dhanda V, Michael E, Grenfell BT. Episodic adenolymphangitis and lymphoedema in patients with bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Jan-Feb. 89(1):72-4. [Medline].

  34. Kaiser C, Rubaale T, Tukesiga E, Kipp W, Kabagambe G, Ojony JO, et al. Association between onchocerciasis and epilepsy in the Itwara hyperendemic focus, West Uganda: controlling for time and intensity of exposure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Aug. 85(2):225-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  35. Gobbi F, Boussinesq M, Mascarello M, Angheben A, Gobbo M, Rossanese A, et al. Case report: Loiasis with peripheral nerve involvement and spleen lesions. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 May. 84(5):733-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  36. Garg PK, Bhatt S, Kashyap B, George A, Jain BK. Genital filariasis masquerading as testicular torsio. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011 Jun. 48(2):119-21. [Medline].

  37. Mehlotra RK, Gray LR, Blood-Zikursh MJ, Kloos Z, Henry-Halldin CN, Tisch DJ, et al. Molecular-based assay for simultaneous detection of four Plasmodium spp. and Wuchereria bancrofti infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jun. 82(6):1030-3. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  38. Moss DM, Priest JW, Boyd A, Weinkopff T, Kucerova Z, Beach MJ, et al. Multiplex bead assay for serum samples from children in Haiti enrolled in a drug study for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Aug. 85(2):229-37. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  39. Chanteau S, Moulia-Pelat JP, Glaziou P, Nguyen NL, Luquiaud P, Plichart C, et al. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. J Infect Dis. 1994 Jul. 170(1):247-50. [Medline].

  40. Nguyen NL, Plichart C, Esterre P. Assessment of immunochromatographic test for rapid lymphatic filariasis diagnosis. Parasite. 1999 Dec. 6(4):355-8. [Medline].

  41. Schuetz A, Addiss DG, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ. Evaluation of the whole blood filariasis ICT test for short-term monitoring after antifilarial treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Apr. 62(4):502-3. [Medline].

  42. Lal RB, Ottesen EA. Enhanced diagnostic specificity in human filariasis by IgG4 antibody assessment. J Infect Dis. 1988 Nov. 158(5):1034-7. [Medline].

  43. Dreyer G, Noroes J, Amaral F, Nen A, Medeiros Z, Coutinho A, et al. Direct assessment of the adulticidal efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Jul-Aug. 89(4):441-3. [Medline].

  44. Ottesen EA. Major progress toward eliminating lymphatic filariasis. N Engl J Med. 2002 Dec 5. 347(23):1885-6. [Medline].

  45. Ashton RA, Kyabayinze DJ, Opio T, Auma A, Edwards T, Matwale G, et al. The impact of mass drug administration and long-lasting insecticidal net distribution on Wuchereria bancrofti infection in humans and mosquitoes: an observational study in northern Uganda. Parasit Vectors. 2011 Jul 15. 4:134. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  46. Drexler N, Washington CH, Lovegrove M, Grady C, Milord MD, Streit T, et al. Secondary mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti-definition of transmission foci in low-prevalence settings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012. 6(10):e1807. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  47. van den Berg H, Kelly-Hope LA, Lindsay SW. Malaria and lymphatic filariasis: the case for integrated vector management. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Jan. 13(1):89-94. [Medline].

  48. Arndts K, Deininger S, Specht S, Klarmann U, Mand S, Adjobimey T, et al. Elevated adaptive immune responses are associated with latent infections of Wuchereria bancrofti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012. 6(4):e1611. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  49. Gass K, Beau de Rochars MV, Boakye D, Bradley M, Fischer PU, Gyapong J, et al. A multicenter evaluation of diagnostic tools to define endpoints for programs to eliminate bancroftian filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Jan. 6(1):e1479. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  50. Dembele B, Coulibaly YI, Dolo H, Konate S, Coulibaly SY, Sanogo D, et al. Use of high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin to suppress Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial levels. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 1. 51(11):1229-35. [Medline].

  51. WHO. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2008 Sep 12. 83(37):333-41. [Medline].

  52. Linehan M, Hanson C, Weaver A, Baker M, Kabore A, Zoerhoff KL, et al. Integrated implementation of programs targeting neglected tropical diseases through preventive chemotherapy: proving the feasibility at national scale. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jan. 84(1):5-14. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  53. Tisch DJ, Alexander ND, Kiniboro B, Dagoro H, Siba PM, Bockarie MJ, et al. Reduction in acute filariasis morbidity during a mass drug administration trial to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Jul. 5(7):e1241. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  54. Karmakar PR, Mitra K, Chatterjee A, Jana PK, Bhattacharya S, Lahiri SK. A study on coverage, compliance and awareness about mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in a district of West Bengal, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011 Jun. 48(2):101-4. [Medline].

  55. Grieve RB, Wisnewski N, Frank GR, Tripp CA. Vaccine research and development for the prevention of filarial nematode infections. Pharm Biotechnol. 1995. 6:737-68. [Medline].

  56. Mand S, Debrah AY, Klarmann U, Batsa L, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Kwarteng A, et al. Doxycycline improves filarial lymphedema independent of active filarial infection: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Sep. 55(5):621-30. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  57. Ottesen EA. Filarial infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1993 Sep. 7(3):619-33. [Medline].

  58. Critchley J, Addiss D, Ejere H, Gamble C, Garner P, Gelband H. Albendazole for the control and elimination of lymphatic filariasis: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Sep. 10(9):818-25. [Medline].

  59. Critchley J, Addiss D, Gamble C, Garner P, Gelband H, Ejere H. Albendazole for lymphatic filariasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19. CD003753. [Medline].

  60. Ottesen EA, Ismail MM, Horton J. The role of albendazole in programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Parasitol Today. 1999 Sep. 15(9):382-6. [Medline].

  61. Murdoch ME. Onchodermatitis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010 Apr. 23(2):124-31. [Medline].

  62. Debrah AY, Mand S, Specht S, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Batsa L, Pfarr K, et al. Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Sep. 2(9):e92. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  63. Mand S, Pfarr K, Sahoo PK, Satapathy AK, Specht S, Klarmann U, et al. Macrofilaricidal activity and amelioration of lymphatic pathology in bancroftian filariasis after 3 weeks of doxycycline followed by single-dose diethylcarbamazine. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Oct. 81(4):702-11. [Medline].

  64. Sanprasert V, Sujariyakul A, Nuchprayoon S. A single dose of doxycycline in combination with diethylcarbamazine for treatment of bancroftian filariasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010 Jul. 41(4):800-12. [Medline].

  65. Dunyo SK, Nkrumah FK, Simonsen PE. Single-dose treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti infections with ivermectin and albendazole alone or in combination: evaluation of the potential for control at 12 months after treatment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jul-Aug. 94(4):437-43. [Medline].

  66. Ottesen EA, Vijayasekaran V, Kumaraswami V, Perumal Pillai SV, Sadanandam A, Frederick S, et al. A controlled trial of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine in lymphatic filariasis. N Engl J Med. 1990 Apr 19. 322(16):1113-7. [Medline].

  67. Kazura JW. Higher-dose, more frequent treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 1. 51(11):1236-7. [Medline].

  68. Schiefer A, Schmitz A, Schäberle TF, Specht S, Lämmer C, Johnston KL, et al. Corallopyronin A specifically targets and depletes essential obligate Wolbachia endobacteria from filarial nematodes in vivo. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 15. 206(2):249-57. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  69. Coulibaly YI, Dembele B, Diallo AA, Lipner EM, Doumbia SS, Coulibaly SY, et al. A randomized trial of doxycycline for Mansonella perstans infection. N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 8. 361(15):1448-58. [Medline].

Filariasis. This figure displays the life cycle of Wuchereria bancrofti in humans and mosquito vectors (ie, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia species). Life cycles of other lymphatic nematodes (ie, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori) are identical, while the life cycles for other filariae differ in the body location of adult worms, the microfilariae present, and the arthropod intermediate hosts and vectors.
Filarial abscess scar on the left upper thigh in a young male who is positive for Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae
Lymphatic filariasis resulting from Wuchereria bancrofti infection, which is causing limb lymphoedema, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and hydrocele. Photograph taken by Professor Bruce McMillan and donated by John Walker, MD.
Filariasis. Unilateral left lower leg elephantiasis secondary to Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a boy.
Filariasis. This is a close-up view of the unilateral lower leg elephantiasis shown in the previous image. Note the lymphedema and typical skin appearance of depigmentation and verrucosities (warty changes).
Filariasis. Lateral view of the right outer aspect of a leg affected by gross elephantiasis secondary to Wuchereria bancrofti infection.
Filariasis. Inner aspect of the lower leg of the male patient in the previous image, showing gross elephantiasis secondary to Wuchereria bancrofti infection.
Filariasis. Unilateral left hydrocele and testicular enlargement secondary to Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a man who also was positive for microfilariae.
Filariasis. Bilateral hydrocele, testicular enlargement, and inguinal lymphadenopathy secondary to Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a man who also was microfilaremic.
Filariasis. Adult worms of Wuchereria bancrofti in cross section isolated from a testicular lump.
Filariasis. Microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti in a peripheral blood smear.
Filariasis. Appearance of microfilariae after concentration of venous blood with a Nuclepore filter.
Filariasis. Onchocercomas of the forearm skin (sowda) in a Sudanese man.
Filariasis. Adult Onchocerca volvulus contained within onchocercomas of the skin.
Filariasis. Microfilariae of Loa loa detected in skin snips.
Filariasis. Microfilariae of Mansonella perstans in peripheral blood.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.