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Klebsiella Infections Follow-up

  • Author: Shahab Qureshi, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 06, 2015
 

Transfer

Transfer patients with serious infections to a tertiary care facility.

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Deterrence/Prevention

Follow hospital protocols for infection control to limit the spread of infection and resistant organisms. Restricting certain antibiotic use for specific indications and duration may help prevent the spread of resistant organisms.

Proper hand washing is crucial to prevent transmission from patient to patient via medical personnel. Contact isolation should be used for patients colonized or infected with highly antibiotic–resistant Klebsiella strains, such as ESBL-producing organisms.

Single-use devices may minimize transmission from contaminated equipment.

Contaminated nebulizers are a major source of hospital-acquired infection; this source has been eliminated through the use of disposable devices.

Use of protective isolation is generally not recommended. Outbreaks of diarrhea associated with Klebsiella infection in neonatal nurseries should necessitate isolation of affected infants.

Other suggested measures to prevent nosocomial infections include the following:

  • Remove medical devices (eg, catheters, tubes) when no longer needed.
  • Use nonalkalinizing gastric cytoprotective agents.
  • Place intubated patients in a semirecumbent position.
  • When possible, consider decreasing the duration and intensity of immunosuppression in patients who are immunocompromised.
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Complications

Lung abscesses can occur days to weeks after Klebsiella infection. A lung abscess in a patient with a non–community-acquired pneumonia strongly suggests K pneumoniae infection.

Pulmonary gangrene leading to necrosis involves rapid destruction of part of the lung. This is believed to follow vascular compromise. Fortunately, this is rare.

Other pulmonary complications include cavitation, empyema, bronchopulmonary fistula, and pleural adhesions.

Superinfections can occur while patients are treated for K pneumoniae infection; likewise, K pneumoniae infection can be a superinfection that develops during inpatient treatment for another type of pneumonia.

Sepsis can complicate bacteremia and can result in shock and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.

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Prognosis

K pneumoniae pneumonia has a 50% mortality rate, even with adequate therapy. The prognosis is worse in patients with alcoholism and bacteremia. Preventive strategies and early diagnosis/treatment help to reduce morbidity.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Shahab Qureshi, MD Attending Physician in General Internal Medicine, St Catharine's General Hospital; Associate Clinical Professor (Adjunct), McMaster University School of Medicine, Canada

Shahab Qureshi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Ontario Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

John W King, MD Professor of Medicine, Chief, Section of Infectious Diseases, Director, Viral Therapeutics Clinics for Hepatitis, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center; Consultant in Infectious Diseases, Overton Brooks Veterans Affairs Medical Center

John W King, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Medical Research, Association of Subspecialty Professors, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD David Ross Boyd Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Stewart G Wolf Endowed Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center; Master of the American College of Physicians; Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Medical Association, Oklahoma State Medical Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of Professors of Medicine, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

David Hall Shepp, MD Program Director, Fellowship in Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital; Associate Professor, New York University School of Medicine

David Hall Shepp, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Received salary from Gilead Sciences for management position.

Acknowledgements

Leonard B Berkowitz, MD Chief, Divisions of Infectious Diseases and HIV/AIDS Services, Brooklyn Hospital Center; Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Brooklyn

Leonard B Berkowitz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Obiamiwe Umeh, MBBS Fellow, Center for AIDS Research and Education, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Obiamiwe Umeh, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians and American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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This scanning electron micrograph (SEM) reveals some of the ultrastructural morphologic features of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Courtesy of CDC/Janice Carr.
 
 
 
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