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Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Rupal M Mody, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Burke A Cunha, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 02, 2014
 
 

Diagnostic Considerations

Table 1. Differential Diagnosis of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) (Open Table in a new window)

DiagnosisSeasonUsual SourceRelative BradycardiaPharyngitisDiarrheaParotitisOrchitisCSF Glucose level
LCMFall/winterMouse, hamster++/--+/-+/-Normal or decreased
Typhoid feverYear-roundFood, water+++ (late)--Normal
Enteroviral illnessSummerWater-++--Normal
Arboviral illnessSummerMosquito-----Normal
LeptospirosisSummer/fallDogs, rats-----Normal
InfluenzaWinterPerson-+---Normal
MumpsWinter/springPerson---++/-Normal or decreased

 

Other viral meningitides

Mumps

Arboviral encephalitis

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Rupal M Mody, MD, MPH Staff Physician

Rupal M Mody, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

John L Brusch, MD, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Medicine and Infectious Disease Service, Cambridge Health Alliance

John L Brusch, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Burke A Cunha, MD Professor of Medicine, State University of New York School of Medicine at Stony Brook; Chief, Infectious Disease Division, Winthrop-University Hospital

Burke A Cunha, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Florida Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Diane H Johnson, MD Assistant Director, Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Winthrop-University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Medicine

Diane H Johnson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Medical Women's Association, American Society for Microbiology, and Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Brown D, Lloyd G. Zoonotic virus. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby; 1999. 11.1-11.14.

  2. Childs JE, Glass GE, Korch GW, et al. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection and house mouse (Mus musculus) distribution in urban Baltimore. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Jul. 47(1):27-34. [Medline].

  3. Pedrosa PB, Cardoso TA. Viral infections in workers in hospital and research laboratory settings: a comparative review of infection modes and respective biosafety aspects. Int J Infect Dis. 2011 Jun. 15(6):e366-76. [Medline].

  4. Cunha BA. Meningitis. Schlossberg D, ed. Central Nervous System Infections. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1990.

  5. Farmer TW, Janeway CA. Infection with the virus of lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Medicine (Baltimore). 1942. 2:11.

  6. McKee KT Jr. Hemorrhagic fever virus. Infectious Diseases. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1998. 2249-65.

  7. Peters CJ. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Lassa Virus, and the South American Hemorrhagic Fevers. Mandell, Douglas, Bennett, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2005. 2090-6.

  8. Wilson MR, Peters CJ. Diseases of the central nervous system caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and other arenaviruses. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014. 123:671-81. [Medline].

  9. Oldstone MB. Lessons learned and concepts formed from study of the pathogenesis of the two negative-strand viruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis and influenza. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 12. 110(11):4180-3. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Peters CJ. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus--an old enemy up to new tricks. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 25. 354(21):2208-11. [Medline].

  11. Fischer SA, Graham MB, Kuehnert MJ, Kotton CN, Srinivasan A, Marty FM. Transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by organ transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 25. 354(21):2235-49. [Medline].

  12. Razonable RR. Rare, unusual, and less common virus infections after organ transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2011 Dec. 16(6):580-7. [Medline].

  13. Barton LL. LCMV transmission by organ transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct 19. 355(16):1737; author reply 1737-8. [Medline].

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Table 1. Differential Diagnosis of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM)
DiagnosisSeasonUsual SourceRelative BradycardiaPharyngitisDiarrheaParotitisOrchitisCSF Glucose level
LCMFall/winterMouse, hamster++/--+/-+/-Normal or decreased
Typhoid feverYear-roundFood, water+++ (late)--Normal
Enteroviral illnessSummerWater-++--Normal
Arboviral illnessSummerMosquito-----Normal
LeptospirosisSummer/fallDogs, rats-----Normal
InfluenzaWinterPerson-+---Normal
MumpsWinter/springPerson---++/-Normal or decreased
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