Malaria Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Thomas E Herchline, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 27, 2015
 

History

In patients with suspected malaria, obtaining a history of recent or remote travel to an endemic area is critical. Asking explicitly if they traveled to a tropical area at anytime in their life may enhance recall. Maintain a high index of suspicion for malaria in any patient exhibiting any malarial symptoms and having a history of travel to endemic areas.

Also determine the patient's immune status, age, and pregnancy status; allergies or other medical conditions that he or she may have; and medications that he or she may be using.

Patients with malaria typically become symptomatic a few weeks after infection, although the host's previous exposure or immunity to malaria affects the symptomatology and incubation period. In addition, each Plasmodium species has a typical incubation period. Importantly, virtually all patients with malaria present with headache. Clinical symptoms also include the following:

  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Shaking chills
  • Arthralgia
  • Myalgia

Paroxysm of fever, shaking chills, and sweats (every 48 or 72 h, depending on species)

The classic paroxysm begins with a period of shivering and chills, which lasts for approximately 1-2 hours and is followed by a high fever. Finally, the patient experiences excessive diaphoresis, and the body temperature of the patient drops to normal or below normal.

Many patients, particularly early in infection, do not present the classic paroxysm but may have several small fever spikes a day. Indeed, the periodicity of fever associated with each species (ie, 48 h for P falciparum, P vivax, and P ovale [or tertian fever] ; 72 h for P malariae [or quartan fever]) is not apparent during initial infection because of multiple broods emerging in the bloodstream. In addition, the periodicity is often not observed in P falciparum infections. Patients with long-standing, synchronous infections are more likely to present with classic fever patterns. In general, however, the occurrence of periodicity of fever is not a reliable clue to the diagnosis of malaria.

Less common malarial symptoms include the following:

  • Anorexia and lethargy
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Jaundice

Notably, infection with P vivax, particularly in temperate areas of India, may cause symptoms up to 6-12 months after the host leaves the endemic area. In addition, patients infected with P vivax or P ovale may relapse after longer periods, because of the hypnozoite stage in the liver.

P malariae does not have a hypnozoite stage, but patients infected with P malariae may have a prolonged, asymptomatic erythrocytic infection that becomes symptomatic years after leaving the endemic area.

Tertian and quartan fevers are due to the cyclic lysis of red blood cells that occurs as trophozoites complete their cycle in erythrocytes every 2 or 3 days, respectively. P malariae causes quartan fever; P vivax and P ovale cause the benign form of tertian fever, and P falciparum causes the malignant form. The cyclic pattern of fever is very rare.

Travelers to forested areas of Southeast Asia and South America have become infected by Plasmodium knowlesi, a dangerous species normally found only in long-tailed and pigtail macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and M nemestrina, respectively). This species can cause severe illness and death in humans, but, under the microscope, the parasite looks similar to the more benign P malariae and has sometimes been misdiagnosed.

Because P malariae infection is typically relatively mild, Plasmodium knowlesi infection should be suspected in persons residing or traveling in the above geographical areas who are severely ill and have microscopic evidence of P malariae infection. Diagnosis may be confirmed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay test methods.

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Physical Examination

Most patients with malaria have no specific physical findings, but splenomegaly may be present. Symptoms of malarial infection are nonspecific and may manifest as a flulike illness with fever, headache, malaise, fatigue, and muscle aches. Some patients with malaria present with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Immune individuals may be completely asymptomatic or may present with mild anemia. Nonimmune patients may quickly become very ill.

Severe malaria primarily involves P falciparum infection, although death due to splenic rupture has been reported in patients with non– P falciparum malaria. Severe malaria manifests as cerebral malaria, severe anemia, respiratory symptoms, and renal failure.

In children, malaria has a shorter course, often rapidly progressing to severe malaria. Children are more likely to present with hypoglycemia, seizures, severe anemia, and sudden death, but they are much less likely to develop renal failure, pulmonary edema, or jaundice.

Cerebral malaria

This feature is almost always caused by P falciparum infection. Coma may occur; coma can usually be distinguished from a postictal state secondary to generalized seizure if the patient does not regain consciousness after 30 minutes. When evaluating comatose patients with malaria, hypoglycemia and CNS infections should be excluded.

Severe anemia

The anemia associated with malaria is multifactorial and is usually associated with P falciparum infection. In nonimmune patients, anemia may be secondary to erythrocyte infection and a loss of infected RBCs. In addition, uninfected RBCs are inappropriately cleared, and bone marrow suppression may be involved.

Renal failure

This is a rare complication of malarial infection. Infected erythrocytes adhere to the microvasculature in the renal cortex, often resulting in oliguric renal failure. Renal failure is typically reversible, although supportive dialysis is often needed until kidney function recovers. In rare cases, chronic P malariae infection results in nephrotic syndrome.

Respiratory symptoms

Patients with malaria may develop metabolic acidosis and associated respiratory distress. In addition, pulmonary edema can occur. Signs of malarial hyperpneic syndrome include alar flaring, chest retraction (intercostals or subcostal), use of accessory muscles for respiration, or abnormally deep breathing.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Thomas E Herchline, MD Professor of Medicine, Wright State University, Boonshoft School of Medicine; Medical Director, Public Health, Dayton and Montgomery County, Ohio

Thomas E Herchline, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Infectious Diseases Society of Ohio, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD David Ross Boyd Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Stewart G Wolf Endowed Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center; Master of the American College of Physicians; Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Medical Association, Oklahoma State Medical Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of Professors of Medicine, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Emilio V Perez-Jorge, MD, FACP Staff Physician, Division of Infectious Diseases, Lexington Medical Center

Emilio V Perez-Jorge, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, South Carolina Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Professor, Stewart G Wolf Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, Association of Professors of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Oklahoma State Medical Association, and Southern Society for Clinical Investigation

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Joseph Richard Masci, MD Professor of Medicine, Professor of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Director of Medicine, Elmhurst Hospital Center

Joseph Richard Masci, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, Association of Professors of Medicine, and Royal Society of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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Malarial merozoites in the peripheral blood. Note that several of the merozoites have penetrated the erythrocyte membrane and entered the cell.
This micrograph illustrates the trophozoite form, or immature-ring form, of the malarial parasite within peripheral erythrocytes. Red blood cells infected with trophozoites do not produce sequestrins and, therefore, are able to pass through the spleen.
An erythrocyte filled with merozoites, which soon will rupture the cell and attempt to infect other red blood cells. Notice the darkened central portion of the cell; this is hemozoin, or malaria pigment, which is a paracrystalline precipitate formed when heme polymerase reacts with the potentially toxic heme stored within the erythrocyte. When treated with chloroquine, the enzyme heme polymerase is inhibited, leading to the heme-induced demise of non–chloroquine-resistant merozoites.
A mature schizont within an erythrocyte. These red blood cells (RBCs) are sequestered in the spleen when malaria proteins, called sequestrins, on the RBC surface bind to endothelial cells within that organ. Sequestrins are only on the surfaces of erythrocytes that contain the schizont form of the parasite.
Schema of the life cycle of malaria. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Table 1. Histologic Variations Among Plasmodium Species
Findings P falciparum P vivax P ovale P malariae
Only early forms present in peripheral blood Yes No No No
Multiply-infected RBCs Often Occasionally Rare Rare
Age of infected RBCs RBCs of all ages Young RBCs Young RBCs Old RBCs
Schüffner dots No Yes Yes No
Other features Cells have thin cytoplasm, 1 or 2 chromatin dots, and applique forms. Late trophozoites develop pleomorphic cytoplasm. Infected RBCs become oval, with tufted edges. Bandlike trophozoites are distinctive.
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