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Boutonneuse Fever Medication

  • Author: Jason F Okulicz, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
 
Updated: Mar 11, 2016
 

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy for boutonneuse fever (BF), also known as Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF), are to reduce morbidity, to prevent complications, and to eradicate the infection. Antibiotics are the mainstay of therapy for this disease, as for other rickettsial diseases. Patients with BF typically improve within 24 hours after initiation of therapy; a delay in response should cast doubt on the diagnosis.

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Antibiotics

Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and cover all likely pathogens in the context of this clinical setting. Tetracyclines, along with chloramphenicol and quinolones, may be considered first-line agents for this condition. Patients presenting with the benign form of BF usually receive antibiotics for 7 days, whereas those presenting with malignant BF are treated for 2 weeks. Clarithromycin and azithromycin have been used to treat children with BF.

Doxycycline (Vibramycin, Adoxa, Doryx, Monodox)

 

Doxycycline is a tetracycline with a broad spectrum of activity. It inhibits protein synthesis and thus bacterial growth by binding to 30S and possibly 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria.

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cipro XR)

 

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone that is active against pseudomonads, streptococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, and most gram-negative organisms but has no activity against anaerobes (eg, Bacteroides fragilis). It inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis and consequently growth. Treatment should be continued for at least 2 days (typically, 7-14 days) after signs and symptoms have disappeared.

Levofloxacin (Levaquin)

 

Levofloxacin is a second-generation quinolone that acts by interfering with DNA gyrase in bacterial cells. It is bactericidal and is highly active against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Chloramphenicol

 

Chloramphenicol binds to 50S bacterial-ribosomal subunits and inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax)

 

Azithromycin acts by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible microorganisms and blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest. Nucleic acid synthesis is not affected.

In vitro incubation techniques demonstrate that azithromycin concentrates in phagocytes and fibroblasts. In vivo studies suggest that concentration in phagocytes may contribute to drug distribution to inflamed tissues. Plasma concentrations of azithromycin are very low, but tissue concentrations are much higher, giving this agent value in treating intracellular organisms. Azithromycin has a long tissue half-life.

Azithromycin is used to treat mild-to-moderate microbial infections, including uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by S aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae.

Clarithromycin (Biaxin, Biaxin XL)

 

Clarithromycin is a semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic that reversibly binds to the P site of 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible organisms and may inhibit RNA-dependent protein synthesis by stimulating dissociation of peptidyl t-RNA from ribosomes, causing bacterial growth inhibition.

Rifampin (Rifadin)

 

Rifampin inhibits DNA-dependent bacterial (but not mammalian) RNA polymerase. Cross-resistance may occur.

Erythromycin (Ery-Tab, PCE, Erythrocin)

 

Erythromycin is a macrolide used for penicillin-allergic individuals. It inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl transfer ribonucleic acid (t-RNA) from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest. Erythromycin is administered for the treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal infections.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Jason F Okulicz, MD, FACP, FIDSA Director, HIV Medical Evaluation Unit, Infectious Disease Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center; Associate Professor of Medicine, F Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio; Adjunct Clinical Instructor, Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word

Jason F Okulicz, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Pierre A Dorsainvil, MD Medical Director, HIV Specialist, Palm Beach County Main Detention Center; Consulting Staff, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Lake Ida Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Burke A Cunha, MD Professor of Medicine, State University of New York School of Medicine at Stony Brook; Chief, Infectious Disease Division, Winthrop-University Hospital

Burke A Cunha, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mark S Rasnake, MD, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine, Program Director, Internal Medicine Residency, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville

Mark S Rasnake, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD David Ross Boyd Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Stewart G Wolf Endowed Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center; Master of the American College of Physicians; Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Medical Association, Oklahoma State Medical Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of Professors of Medicine, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

David F Butler, MD Professor of Dermatology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine; Chair, Department of Dermatology, Director, Dermatology Residency Training Program, Scott and White Clinic, Northside Clinic

David F Butler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, American Society for MOHS Surgery, Association of Military Dermatologists, and Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Dirk M Elston, MD Director, Ackerman Academy of Dermatopathology, New York

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Thomas M Kerkering, MD Chief of Infectious Diseases, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine

Thomas M Kerkering, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American Public Health Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Medical Society of Virginia, and Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Paul Krusinski, MD Director of Dermatology, Fletcher Allen Health Care; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine

Paul Krusinski, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, and Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Joseph Richard Masci, MD Professor of Medicine, Professor of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Director of Medicine, Elmhurst Hospital Center

Joseph Richard Masci, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, Association of Professors of Medicine, and Royal Society of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, and Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

Robin Travers, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine (Dermatology), Dartmouth University School of Medicine; Staff Dermatologist, New England Baptist Hospital; Private Practice, SkinCare Physicians

Robin Travers, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Informatics Association, Massachusetts Medical Society, Medical Dermatology Society, and Women's Dermatologic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Anna Zalewska, MD, PhD Professor of Dermatology and Venereology, Psychodermatology Department, Chair of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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