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Moraxella catarrhalis Infection Treatment & Management

  • Author: Michael Constantinescu, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 06, 2015
 

Approach Considerations

Medical management of M catarrhalis infection depends on the infection site, age of the patient, underlying condition(s), and severity of the disease.

Consultation with an ear, nose, and throat specialist may be indicated in recurrent cases of otitis or sinusitis. Consultation with an infectious disease specialist is recommended for infections that do not respond to antibiotic treatment, infections in patients with underlying debilitating conditions, systemic infections with M catarrhalis, or infections in unusual locations.

Follow-up care with the patient’s primary care physician is highly recommended. Worsening symptoms warrant a return visit to the primary care physician.

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Pharmacologic Therapy

Any of a number of antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat M catarrhalis infection, depending on the need for use of oral or parenteral medication, the age of the patient, any underlying conditions present, the sensitivity of the organism, and the desired spectrum of coverage.

Approximately 95% of M catarrhalis strains isolated in the United States produce beta-lactamase. Antibiotics such as penicillin, amoxicillin, and ampicillin are only effective against strains that do not produce beta-lactamase.

Amoxicillin-clavulanate, second- and third-generation oral cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) are the most recommended agents. Alternatively, azithromycin or clarithromycin can be used. More than 90% of M catarrhalis strains have been shown to resist amoxicillin, and these rates vary by region.[20]

In one study, topical use of ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone for treatment of acute otitis media with otorrhea via tympanostomy tubes was found to have similar efficacy to that of topical use of ofloxacin in M catarrhalis infections.[21]

In another study, treatment with oral azithromycin 500 mg once daily for 3 days was found to be comparable with a 10-day regimen of oral clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.[22]

Telithromycin, a ketolide derivative of erythromycin A, demonstrated good in vitro activity against M catarrhalis in a study of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.[23] However, severe liver disease associated with telithromycin use has been reported.[24]

Moxifloxacin, a quinolone, was found to be an effective treatment of M catarrhalis– associated community-acquired pneumonia in a dosage of 400 mg/day.[25]

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Prevention

Universal precautions, good hand-washing technique, and sterilization of instruments and tubes used in intubations, aspiration, or invasive procedures may reduce or prevent the nosocomial infections caused by M catarrhalis. Cessation of smoking and prevention of passive smoking may reduce M catarrhalis infections. Good general health habits (eg, proper rest, exercise, and diet) are helpful as well.

Research is under way to create a vaccine to prevent M catarrhalis infections.[26, 27] It is projected that 4.2 million episodes of otitis media would be prevented by a combined pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzaeMoraxella vaccine.[28]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Michael Constantinescu, MD Staff Pathologist, Overton Brooks Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Michael Constantinescu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

James D Cotelingam, MBBS, MD Head of Hematopathology, Director of Clinical Laboratories, Professor, Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in Shreveport

James D Cotelingam, MBBS, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Physician Leadership, American Society for Clinical Pathology, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, College of American Pathologists, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Ronald Silberman, PhD Director of Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Louisiana State University Hospital; Professor, Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in Shreveport

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Joseph A Bocchini, Jr, MD Medical Director of Children's Hospital; Member, Pediatric Infectious Disease Section, Chairman, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in Shreveport

Joseph A Bocchini, Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD David Ross Boyd Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Stewart G Wolf Endowed Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center; Master of the American College of Physicians; Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Medical Association, Oklahoma State Medical Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of Professors of Medicine, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Joseph F John Jr, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine; Associate Chief of Staff for Education, Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Maria D Mileno, MD Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University

Maria D Mileno, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International Society of Travel Medicine, and Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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