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Mycobacterium Kansasii Treatment & Management

  • Author: Janak Koirala, MD, MPH, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA  more...
 
Updated: Oct 07, 2015
 

Medical Care

In general, M kansasii shows good in vitro susceptibility to rifampin/rifabutin, amikacin, streptomycin, and clarithromycin. Rifampin-resistant strains are usually cross-resistant to rifabutin and, therefore, need separate susceptibility testing. In vitro susceptibility of isoniazid should be interpreted carefully, as it does not correlate with clinical outcome. In patients with no prior exposure to isoniazid, the drug is useful in the treatment of M kansasii infection, regardless of poor susceptibility results. Isoniazid susceptibility testing in laboratories is performed at lower concentrations (0.2 or 1 mcg/mL), which were designed for M tuberculosis, whereas M kansasii susceptibility requires a higher concentration (5mcg/mL) . Pyrazinamide should not be used to treat M kansasii infection.

Patients in whom M kansasii infection is diagnosed should be treated with at least 3 drugs. The initial drug regimen should include rifampin, which has been shown to yield low failure rates (1.1%) and low long-term relapse rates (< 1%).[16] Rifampin is the cornerstone of treatment for M kansasii infection. Although more commonly used as an alternative in HIV-infected patients to reduce drug interaction, rifabutin shows more in vitro activity compared with rifampin.[17]

The 2007 ATS/IDSA guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections recommended the following regimens for treatment of M kansasii infection:[15]

  • First-line regimen: This consists of rifampin (10 mg/kg/day; maximum, 600 mg) plus ethambutol (15 mg/kg/day) plus isoniazid (5 mg/kg/day; maximum 300 mg) plus pyridoxine (50 mg/day), with the treatment duration continuing until sputum culture results are negative for 12 months.
  • Alternative regimen: In patients with rifampin-resistant M kansasii disease, a 3-drug regimen should be used based on in vitro susceptibilities. These 3 drugs should include clarithromycin or azithromycin, moxifloxacin, ethambutol, sulfamethoxazole, or streptomycin.

More recent in vitro data for M kansasii suggest increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin (30% and 40% resistance, respectively).[18] However, clarithromycin remains active against M kansasii, with 100% of isolates displaying susceptibility in vitro.[17, 18] Many clinicians prefer a combination of clarithromycin with rifampin (or rifabutin) and ethambutol.

Patients with M kansasii pulmonary infection should be closely monitored with routine clinical examinations and regular sputum for AFB smears and cultures for mycobacteria during the treatment period. The antimycobacterials can be stopped after AFB sputum results are negative for at least 12 months.

Patients with extrapulmonary and disseminated M kansasii infections should be treated in a similar manner to those with pulmonary disease.

Treatment for CNS disease is similar to the pulmonary infection and includes rifampin or rifabutin, with ethambutol, and either isoniazid or clarithromycin. CNS infection due to M kansasii has been reported to have high rates of morbidity despite treatment.[19]

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Surgical Care

Surgical treatment is unnecessary in M kansasii infection, as it responds very well to antimycobacterial therapy.

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Consultations

See the list below:

  • Infectious disease specialist, especially in patients who are co-infected with HIV
  • Pulmonologist if bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies are needed
  • Dermatologist if skin is involved and biopsy is desired
  • Thoracic surgeon if open-lung biopsy is necessary (rare)
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Diet

A dietitian should evaluate malnourished patients.

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Activity

Activity is not limited in patients with M kansasii infection and should be performed as tolerated.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Janak Koirala, MD, MPH, FACP, FIDSA Professor and Division Chair, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Janak Koirala, MD, MPH, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Society for Microbiology, International AIDS Society, International Society for Infectious Diseases, International Society of Travel Medicine, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Aaron Glatt, MD Chief Administrative Officer, Executive Vice President, Mercy Medical Center, Catholic Health Services of Long Island

Aaron Glatt, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Thoracic Society, American Venereal Disease Association, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Florida Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine; Medical Director, Pulmonary Physiology Laboratory; Director of Research in Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital

Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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Chest radiograph in a patient with Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary infection shows left lower lung infiltrates.
Chest CT scan in a patient with Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary infection.
Chest radiograph in a patient with classic right upper lobe cavitary lung disease secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii infection. Courtesy of Raj Sreedhar, MD, SIU School of Medicine, Springfield, IL.
CT thorax of a patient with classic right upper lobe cavitary lung disease secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii infection. Courtesy of Raj Sreedhar, MD, SIU School of Medicine, Springfield, IL.
 
 
 
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