- Author: Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA more...
Further Outpatient Care
Provide supportive care.
Assure normalization of test results after clinical illness has resolved.
Isolation of the patient is not necessary because the disease is transferred from arthropod vectors; no cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported.
Prevention entails avoiding tick and other arthropod vectors via insect repellants, wearing proper outdoor clothing, and, if possible, avoiding endemic areas.
While in endemic areas, search daily for ticks. When removing them, use a blunt forceps or tweezers to grasp the tick. Gently pull upwards with a steady, even pressure without twisting or jerking; this may cause mouth parts to be left in the wound. Avoid handling the tick with bare hands because infectious agents may enter via breaks in the skin. After removing the tick, thoroughly disinfect the bite with soap and water.
Complications in patients who present with meningoencephalitis may include seizures. One child presented with flaccid paralysis due to Orungo virus. Polyradiculoneuritis may be caused by orbiviral infections, and transient cytopenias occurred with Oklahoma tick fever.
Little is known regarding the prognosis of orbiviral infections because follow-up information is limited. Full recovery is expected in most, if not all, cases. Deaths secondary to orbiviral infections have not been reported.
Educate patients on how to avoid arthropod vectors, how to avoid tick exposure, how to conduct daily surveillance for ticks, and how to properly remove ticks.
For excellent patient education resources, see eMedicineHealth's patient education article Ticks.
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