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Poxviruses Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: John D Shanley, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA  more...
 
Updated: Oct 07, 2015
 
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

John D Shanley, MD, MPH Professor Emeritus, University of Connecticut School of Medicine; Professor of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook Medical Center

John D Shanley, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Charles V Sanders, MD Edgar Hull Professor and Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, Professor of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine at New Orleans; Medical Director, Medicine Hospital Center, Charity Hospital and Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans; Consulting Staff, Ochsner Medical Center

Charles V Sanders, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics, The Foundation for AIDS Research, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, Southwestern Association of Clinical Microbiology, Association of Professors of Medicine, Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, American Clinical and Climatological Association, Infectious Disease Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Orleans Parish Medical Society, Southeastern Clinical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association of University Professors, American Association for Physician Leadership, American Federation for Medical Research, American Geriatrics Society, American Lung Association, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Thoracic Society, American Venereal Disease Association, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of American Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Royal Society of Medicine, Sigma Xi, Society of General Internal Medicine, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Received royalty from Baxter International for other.

Chief Editor

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Florida Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Larry I Lutwick, MD Professor of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical School; Director, Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Health Care System, Brooklyn Campus

Larry I Lutwick, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Preston R. The Demon in the Freezer. The New Yorker. July 12, 1999. 44-61. [Full Text].

  2. Kile JC, Fleischauer AT, Beard B, et al. Transmission of monkeypox among persons exposed to infected prairie dogs in Indiana in 2003. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Nov. 159(11):1022-5. [Medline].

  3. Elde NC, Child SJ, Eickbush MT, Kitzman JO, Rogers KS, Shendure J, et al. Poxviruses deploy genomic accordions to adapt rapidly against host antiviral defenses. Cell. 2012 Aug 17. 150(4):831-41. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  4. Moss B. Poxvirus DNA replication. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Sep 1. 5(9):[Medline].

  5. De Clercq E, Neyts J. Therapeutic potential of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues against poxvirus infections. Rev Med Virol. 2004 Sep-Oct. 14(5):289-300. [Medline].

  6. Meadows KP, Tyring SK, Pavia AT, et al. Resolution of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with cidofovir. Arch Dermatol. 1997 Aug. 133(8):987-90. [Medline].

  7. Ibarra V, Blanco JR, Oteo JA, et al. Efficacy of cidofovir in the treatment of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in an AIDS patient. Acta Derm Venereol. 2000 Jul-Aug. 80(4):315-6. [Medline].

  8. Geerinck K, Lukito G, Snoeck R, et al. A case of human orf in an immunocompromised patient treated successfully with cidofovir cream. J Med Virol. 2001 Aug. 64(4):543-9. [Medline].

  9. Baxby D, Bennett M. Poxvirus zoonoses. J Med Microbiol. 1997 Jan. 46(1):17-20, 28-33. [Medline].

  10. Di Giulio DB, Eckburg PB. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Jan. 4(1):15-25. [Medline].

  11. Fenner F. Adventures with poxviruses of vertebrates. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2000 Apr. 24(2):123-33. [Medline].

  12. Fenner F. Poxviruses. Richman D, Whitley RJ, Hayden FG, eds. Clinical Virology. 1st ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. 357-74.

  13. Fenner F, Henderson DH, Arita I, et al. Smallpox and its eradication. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.; 1988.

  14. Henderson DA, Inglesby TV, Bartlett JG, et al. Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. JAMA. 1999 Jun 9. 281(22):2127-37. [Medline].

  15. Henderson DH, Moss B. Smallpox and vaccinia. Plotkin S, Orenstein WA, eds. Vaccines. 3rd. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1999. 74-97.

  16. Lewis-Jones S. Zoonotic poxvirus infections in humans. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Apr. 17(2):81-9. [Medline].

  17. Perna AG, Tyring SK. A review of the dermatologic manifestations of poxvirus infections. Dermatol Clin. 2002 Apr. 20(2):343-6. [Medline].

  18. Slifka MK, Hanifin JM. Smallpox: the basics. Dermatol Clin. 2004 Jul. 22(3):263-74, vi. [Medline].

  19. Bidgood SR, Mercer J. Cloak and Dagger: Alternative Immune Evasion and Modulation Strategies of Poxviruses. Viruses. 2015 Aug 21. 7 (8):4800-25. [Medline].

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Poxviruses. Following vaccination for smallpox, this patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed vaccinia gangrenosum.
Poxviruses. Following vaccination for smallpox, a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed vaccinia gangrenosum. The lesion was on the left shoulder. As the lesion progressed, the patient also developed evidence of dissemination. This image shows a vaccinia pustule on the foot.
 
 
 
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