Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Sarcosporidiosis Treatment & Management

  • Author: Edward Charbek, MD; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA  more...
 
Updated: Oct 07, 2015
 

Medical Care

No specific antiparasitic agent is indicated, as Sarcocystis infection in humans represents the fully formed terminal stage of the parasite. Corticosteroids can be used to reduce the inflammation associated with Sarcocystis muscular involvement.[5, 19]

Next

Surgical Care

As discussed above, excisional biopsy in the area of the painful muscle swelling is occasionally performed for diagnostic purposes but is not generally indicated.[2, 11]

Previous
Next

Consultations

If the history and physical examination findings suggest parasitic infection, consultation with an infectious disease specialist, specifically one familiar with tropical medicine, may be indicated.

Previous
Next

Diet

Sarcocysts have been detected in a large percentage of the world’s beef cows and, to a lesser extent, pigs, camels, sheep, horses, and other domesticated animals.[20] Because of this, all associated meat products should be properly cooked before consumption. It is recommended that beef and pork be cooked at 100°C for 4 minutes or frozen to -4°C for 48 hours before consumption. Food suspected of being contaminated with feces or dirt should be avoided in all circumstances.

Previous
Next

Activity

Because sarcosporidiosis is usually found incidentally and the human host is typically asymptomatic, no activity restrictions apply, even in persons with confirmed infection. If the patient is experiencing significant myalgias, activity can be directed as tolerated, but no studies have shown that the level of activity affects morbidity or mortality in persons with sarcosporidiosis.

Previous
Next

Prevention

No vaccines are currently available for Sarcocystis infection. General hygiene and proper cooking of meat products remain the mainstays of prevention.

Boiling water when contamination with Sarcocystis is suspected provides disinfection. Chemical disinfection with chlorine does not provide adequate disinfection; however, filtering with a small-pore filter does.[21, 22]

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Edward Charbek, MD Fellow in Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, St Louis University Hospital

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Nirav Patel, MD Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy and Immunology and Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, St Louis University School of Medicine; Interim Chief Medical Officer, Director of Antibiotic Stewardship, Infection Control Officer, St Louis University Hospital

Nirav Patel, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Missouri State Medical Association, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Infectious Diseases Society of St Louis, St Louis Metropolitan Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Joseph F John, Jr, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine; Associate Chief of Staff for Education, Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Joseph F John, Jr, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA is a member of the following medical societies: Charleston County Medical Association, Infectious Diseases Society of America, South Carolina Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Florida Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Raphael J Kiel, MD Associate Professor of Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine; Associate Professor of Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Infectious Diseases Division, William Beaumont Hospital; Consulting Staff, Infectious Diseases Division Providence Hospital

Raphael J Kiel, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Geriatrics Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Nicholas R Ondrasik, DO Resident Physician, Department of Internal Medicine, Tripler Army Medical Center

Nicholas R Ondrasik, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, American Osteopathic Association, Christian Medical and Dental Associations, Association of Military Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Gunther Hsue, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Infectious Diseases, Chief, Multi-Specialty Clinic, Tripler Army Medical Center

Gunther Hsue, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Armed Forces Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Kenneth C Earhart, MD Deputy Head, Disease Surveillance Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit #3

Kenneth C Earhart, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Fayer R. Sarcocystis spp. in human infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct. 17(4):894-902, table of contents. [Medline].

  2. Pamphlett R, O'Donoghue P. Sarcocystis infection of human muscle. Aust N Z J Med. 1990 Oct. 20(5):705-7. [Medline].

  3. Pathmanathan R, Kan SP. Three cases of human Sarcocystis infection with a review of human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Trop Geogr Med. 1992 Jan. 44(1-2):102-8. [Medline].

  4. Kan SP, Pathmanathan R. Review of sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec. 22 Suppl:129-34. [Medline].

  5. Frenkel JK. Sarcosporidiosis. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000. 707-9.

  6. Bunyaratvej S, Unpunyo P, Pongtippan A. The Sarcocystis-cyst containing beef and pork as the sources of natural intestinal sarcocystosis in Thai people. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Oct. 90(10):2128-35. [Medline].

  7. Wilairatana P, Radomyos P, Radomyos B, et al. Intestinal sarcocystosis in Thai laborers. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1996 Mar. 27(1):43-6. [Medline].

  8. Guarner J, Bhatnagar J, Shieh WJ, et al. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and polymerase chain reaction assays in the study of cases with fatal sporadic myocarditis. Hum Pathol. 2007 Sep. 38(9):1412-9. [Medline].

  9. Wong KT, Pathmanathan R. High prevalence of human skeletal muscle sarcocystosis in south-east Asia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Nov-Dec. 86(6):631-2. [Medline].

  10. Harvey K, Esposito DH, Han P, Kozarsky P, Freedman DO, Plier DA, et al. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2013 Jul 19. 62:1-23. [Medline].

  11. Rezakhani A, Cheema AH, Edjtehadi M. Second degree atrioventricular block and sarcosporidiosis in sheep. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1977 Mar. 24(3):258-62. [Medline].

  12. Piekarski G, Heydorn AO, Aryeetey ME, et al. [Clinical, parasitological and serological investigations in sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystis suihominis) of man (author's transl)]. Immun Infekt. 1978 Aug. 6(4):153-9. [Medline].

  13. Pena HF, Ogassawara S, Sinhorini IL. Occurrence of cattle Sarcocystis species in raw kibbe from Arabian food establishments in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and experimental transmission to humans. J Parasitol. 2001 Dec. 87(6):1459-65. [Medline].

  14. Mehrotra R, Bisht D, Singh PA, et al. Diagnosis of human sarcocystis infection from biopsies of the skeletal muscle. Pathology. 1996 Aug. 28(3):281-2. [Medline].

  15. Tungtrongchitr A, Chiworaporn C, Praewanich R, et al. The potential usefulness of the modified Kato thick smear technique in the detection of intestinal sarcocystosis during field surveys. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007 Mar. 38(2):232-8. [Medline].

  16. Van den Enden E, Praet M, Joos R, et al. Eosinophilic myositis resulting from sarcocystosis. J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Aug. 98(4):273-6. [Medline].

  17. Beaver PC, Gadgil K, Morera P. Sarcocystis in man: a review and report of five cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1979 Sep. 28(5):819-44. [Medline].

  18. Makhija M. Histological identification of muscular sarcocystis: a report of two cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012 Oct-Dec. 55(4):552-4. [Medline].

  19. Tappe D, Abdullah S, Heo CC, Kannan Kutty M, Latif B. Human and animal invasive muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia--recent cases, review and hypotheses. Trop Biomed. 2013 Sep. 30(3):355-66. [Medline].

  20. Fukuyo M, Battsetseg G, Byambaa B. Prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in meat-producing animals in Mongolia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002 Sep. 33(3):490-5. [Medline].

  21. Fayer R, Esposito DH, Dubey JP. Human infections with Sarcocystis species. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Apr. 28 (2):295-311. [Medline].

  22. Dubey JP, Saville WJ, Sreekumar C, Shen SK, Lindsay OS, Pena HF, et al. Effects of high temperature and disinfectants on the viability of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts. J Parasitol. 2002 Dec. 88 (6):1252-4. [Medline].

  23. Bunyaratvej S, Bunyawongwiroj P, Nitiyanant P. Human intestinal sarcosporidiosis: report of six cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982 Jan. 31(1):36-41. [Medline].

  24. Ackers JP. Gut Coccidia--Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Sarcocystis. Semin Gastrointest Dis. 1997 Jan. 8(1):33-44. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.