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Epidural Abscess Medication

  • Author: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
 
Updated: Feb 17, 2016
 

Medication Summary

The duration of antibiotic therapy is not well defined, but 4-12 weeks is generally considered adequate. Concomitant osteomyelitis requires a 6- to 12-week course. A transition to highly bioavailable oral agents might be appropriate in some cases; rely on an infectious disease specialist consultant for guidance. (See Medical Treatment for empiric selections.) Monitoring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) value may be helpful, as control of infection is usually associated with normalization of the nonspecific markers. Note that some patients are cured despite stubbornly elevated CRP/ESR values, but stopping therapy with high or rising values should always give one pause.

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Antibiotics

Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and cover all likely pathogens. Antibiotic combinations, usually vancomycin or another MRSA agent plus a broad gram-negative agent, are recommended in both intracranial epidural abscess and spinal epidural abscess while awaiting culture data. This approach ensures coverage for a broad range of organisms and polymicrobial infections. Once organisms and sensitivities are known, antibiotic monotherapy is recommended.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

 

Third-generation cephalosporin with fair gram-negative and gram-positive activity. Superior CNS penetration. Arrests bacterial growth by binding to one or more penicillin-binding proteins. Does not cover MRSA, Pseudomonas species, or resistant nosocomial enterics.

Ceftazidime (Ceptaz, Fortaz)

 

Third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum, gram-negative activity (including Pseudomonas species). Poor efficacy against gram-positive organisms and some resistant gram-negative organisms. Arrests bacterial growth by binding to one or more penicillin-binding proteins.

Meropenem (Merrem IV)

 

Bactericidal broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis. Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with excellent CNS penetration. Has slightly increased activity against gram-negative bacteria and slightly decreased activity against staphylococci and streptococci compared with imipenem, but much less likely than imipenem to cause seizures.

Metronidazole (Flagyl, Protostat)

 

Imidazole ring-based antibiotic active against various anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Not active against any aerobes. Must be used in combination for most bacterial infections.

Vancomycin (Lyphocin, Vancocin)

 

Potent antibiotic directed against most gram-positive organisms and active against most Enterococcus species. Indicated in patients who cannot receive or have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or who have infections with MRSA or another susceptible gram-positive organism.

Nafcillin (Nafcil, Unipen)

 

A penicillin used almost exclusively for MSSA. Is not effective against MRSA infections. Do not use empirically when MRSA infection is possible.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Florida Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Gopala K Yadavalli, MD Residency Educator, Department of Internal Medicine, Boston Medical Center

Gopala K Yadavalli, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society for Microbiology, Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Aadia Rana, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD Professor, Chief of Infectious Disease, Program Director of Infectious Disease Fellowship, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, International Immunocompromised Host Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Fred A Lopez, MD Associate Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Medicine, Assistant Dean for Student Affairs, Louisiana State University School of Medicine

Fred A Lopez, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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CT scan showing a lenticular-shaped intracranial epidural abscess.
 
 
 
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