Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Chronic Sinusitis Treatment & Management

  • Author: Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: John L Brusch, MD, FACP  more...
Updated: Mar 04, 2016

Approach Considerations

The goals of medical therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are to reduce mucosal edema, promote sinus drainage, and eradicate infections that may be present. This often requires a combination of topical or oral glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and nasal saline irrigation. If these measures fail, the patient should be referred to an otolaryngologist for consideration of sinus surgery. The role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis remains debatable; however, an early diagnosis and intensive treatment with oral antibiotics, topical nasal steroids, decongestants, and saline nasal sprays results in symptom relief in a significant number of patients, many of whom can be cured. When medical therapy is unsuccessful, refer the patient for surgical evaluation.

Inpatient treatment of chronic sinusitis is indicated for patients with orbital and intracranial complications. Immunosuppressed patients and pediatric patients with chronic sinusitis may need inpatient care, depending on the severity of the disease.

The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has updated its clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of adult sinusitis.[28] The recommendations to clinicians are as follows:

  • Distinguish acute bacterial rhinosinusitis from acute rhinosinusitis caused by viral upper respiratory infections and noninfectious conditions
  • Confirm the clinical diagnosis of CRS with objective documentation of sinonasal inflammation via anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, or CT scan
  • Offer either watchful waiting (without antibiotics) or initial antibiotic therapy for adults with uncomplicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis
  • If antibiotics are prescribed, the initial antibiotic therapy for adults with uncomplicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis should be amoxicillin with or without clavulanate as first-line therapy for 5-10 days
  • Reassess the patient to confirm to bacterial rhinosinusitis and exclude other causes of illness; assess for complications if the patient worsens or fails to improve with the initial management option by 7 days after diagnosis or worsens during the initial management
  • Distinguish CRS and recurrent acute rhinosinusitis from isolated episodes of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and other causes of sinonasal symptoms
  • Assess patients with CRS or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis for multiple chronic conditions that would modify management (eg, asthma, cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiency, ciliary dyskinesia)
  • Assess for nasal polyps in patients with CRS
  • Recommend saline nasal irrigation, topical intranasal corticosteroids, or both for symptomatic relief of CRS
  • Do not prescribe topical or systemic antifungal therapy in patients with CRS

Control of Predisposing Factors

Because chronic sinusitis has many risk factors and potential etiologies, apply a combined approach to control or modify these factors in the management of chronic sinusitis.

Viral upper respiratory tract infections

Reduce viral exposures by improved personal hygiene. The roles of zinc and vitamin C in the prevention of viral upper respiratory tract infection are controversial. On June 16, 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health advisory and notified consumers and health care providers to discontinue the use of intranasal zinc products.[29] The intranasal zinc products (Zicam Nasal Gel/Nasal Swab; Matrixx Initiatives) are herbal cold remedies that claim to reduce the duration and severity of cold symptoms and are sold without a prescription. The FDA received more than 130 reports of anosmia (ie, an inability to detect odors) associated with intranasal zinc. Many of the reports described the loss of smell with the first dose.

Environmental and allergic factors

Environmental factors and/or allergic factors may predispose some individuals to chronic sinusitis. Reduce exposure to dust, molds, cigarette smoke, and other environmental chemical irritants. For patients with confounding nasal allergy, other antiallergy therapies, including either oral or topical antihistamines, cromolyn, topical steroids, and immunotherapy, may reduce recurrences and symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

Smoking cessation likely plays a large role in the success of both medical and surgical treatments because tobacco products act as an irritant to normal nasal mucosa and cilia function.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Patients with adult chronic sinusitis may benefit from control of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has increasingly been implicated in causing or exacerbating respiratory ailments such as asthma and chronic sinusitis. The exact relationships and mechanisms are presently a matter of speculation.


Appropriate control of various congenital and acquired immunodeficiency states is necessary to cure chronic sinusitis.


Especially for patients with co-existing asthma, leukotriene inhibitors may play a role.


Symptomatic Treatment

Symptoms may be relieved with topical decongestants, topical steroids, antibiotics, nasal saline, topical cromolyn, or mucolytics.

Steam inhalation and nasal saline irrigation may help by moistening dry secretions, reducing mucosal edema, and reducing mucous viscosity.

Initial oral steroid therapy followed by topical steroid therapy was found to be more effective than topical steroid therapy alone in decreasing polyp size and improving olfaction in patients with CRS with at least moderate nasal polyposis.[30]

Catalano et al evaluated balloon dilation for the treatment of chronic frontal sinusitis in 20 patients with advanced sinus disease in whom medical therapy had failed and therefore required operative intervention. Preoperative and postoperative CT scans were compared. There were no significant complications from balloon dilation, and there was significant improvement in patients with certain subsets of CRS.[31]

To see complete information on Balloon Sinuplasty, please go to the main article by clicking here.


Antimicrobial Therapy

An adequate antibiotic trial in CRS usually consists of a minimum of 3-4 weeks of treatment, preferably culture directed. Oral antibiotic regimens are generally used to treat chronic sinusitis, since this condition is primarily treated in an outpatient setting. For resistant cases, there may be a role for intravenous antibiotic therapy.

Initial choice of the appropriate antimicrobial(s) is usually empiric. Sinus cultures are not generally obtained for community-acquired infections unless empiric therapy fails to elicit a response. The agent(s) chosen should be effective against the most likely bacterial etiologies, including both aerobic and anaerobic pathogens. The likelihood of involvement by beta-lactamase–producing organisms should be considered. If methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a possible pathogen, coverage for this should be included. History of drug allergies (if any) and cost of therapy should be taken into account as well. In addition, if the patient has received antibiotics during the preceding 3 months, a different class of antibiotics should be used.

Therapeutic regimens include the combination of a penicillin (eg, amoxicillin) plus a beta-lactamase inhibitor (eg, clavulanic acid), a combination of metronidazole plus a macrolide or a second- or third-generation cephalosporin, and the newer quinolones (eg, moxifloxacin). All of these agents (or similar ones) are available in oral and parenteral forms. Other effective antimicrobials are available only in parenteral form (eg, cefoxitin, cefotetan). If aerobic gram-negative organisms (eg, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are involved, parenteral therapy with an aminoglycoside, a fourth-generation cephalosporin (cefepime or ceftazidime), or oral or parenteral treatment with a fluoroquinolone (only in postpubertal patients) is added. Parenteral therapy with a carbapenem (ie, imipenem, meropenem) is more expensive but provides coverage for most potential pathogens, both anaerobes and aerobes.

Agents that provide coverage for MRSA should be administered. Some options include tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or linezolid, which are added to other regimens that cover anaerobes. Parenteral antimicrobials effective against MRSA include vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin.

Ferguson et al performed a prospective observational study of 125 adults with classic symptoms of CRS who underwent nasal endoscopy and sinus CT. Severe symptoms occurred more often in younger patients with normal CT scans of the sinus than in those with positive CT findings. Improvement in response to antibiotics was similar for patients with positive CT findings and those with normal CT scans. The authors concluded that most symptoms considered to be typical for CRS proved to be nonspecific, and they suggest that objective evidence of mucopurulence assessed by endoscopy or CT should be obtained if a prolonged course of antibiotics is being considered.[32]

It is useful to tailor therapy to the clinical type of CRS.[33] CRS without nasal polyps is treated with prednisone 20-40 mg daily tapered over 10 days plus an intranasal steroid. Antibiotic therapy is often required for up to 6 weeks or longer and should not be discontinued until the patient is asymptomatic. Discontinuation of antimicrobial therapy prior to complete resolution increases the likelihood of relapse.

Nebulized antibiotics and antifungal agents be used in refractory cases, especially in patients who have undergone sinus surgery and as a means to avoid prolonged therapy with intravenous antibiotics. Further studies need to be done to establish their role in treating CRS.[34]

In individuals with CRS with nasal polyps, the major intervention is to relieve the obstruction to sinus drainage by reducing or eliminating the polyp. This is achieved primarily with glucocorticosteroids, both systemically and intranasally. Antileukotriene agents can be adjunctive to the effect of the steroids, especially in patients with asthma or an allergy to aspirin.[35]

There is a high rate of S aureus colonization of the sinus mucosa in CRS with nasal polyps. Three weeks of doxycycline therapy has been demonstrated to reduce polyp size, possibly because of the anti-inflammatory properties of the tetracyclines, as well as their anti-staphylococcal effects.[36]

Failure to relieve the polyposis obstruction with medical therapy is an indication for a surgical approach.

A 2015 study indicates that there is little difference in clinical outcomes between 3 weeks versus 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy for CRS.[37] This conclusion is contrary to the experience of many practitioners. At minimum, 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy could be used as a benchmark to reevaluate whether the patient has adequately responded. If not, a surgical approach may be considered.

The role of nebulized antibiotics and antifungal agents in treating refractory cases, especially in patients who have undergone sinus surgery, is very limited and generally should be avoided.[34] Fungal CRP is primarily treated with appropriate surgery.[28]   

Difficult-to-treat chronic sinusitis is associated with nasal polyps, asthma, and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.[38]

In summary, daily saline irrigation with topical cortical steroid therapy is to be considered prime therapy for chronic sinusitis. In patients with nasal polyposis, systemic corticosteroids (3 weeks), doxycycline (3 weeks), and/or a leukotriene antagonist should be considered. In patients without nasal polyps, 3 months of a macrolide antibiotic may be useful.[39]


Surgical Care

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Surgical care is used as an adjunct to medical treatment in some cases. Surgical care is usually reserved for cases that are refractory to medical treatment and for patients with anatomic obstruction. Preoperative CT findings prior to sinus surgery may be poor predictors of surgical outcomes.[40]

The goal in surgical treatment is to reestablish sinus ventilation and to correct mucosal opposition in order to restore the mucociliary clearance system. Surgery strives to restore the functional integrity of the inflamed mucosal lining.

Recent advances in endoscopic technology and a better understanding of the importance of the ostiomeatal complex in the pathophysiology of sinusitis have led to the establishment of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) as the surgical procedure of choice for the treatment of chronic sinusitis.[41]

FESS facilitates the removal of disease in key areas, restores adequate aeration and drainage of the sinuses by establishing patency of the ostiomeatal complex, debulks severe polyposis, and causes less damage to normal nasal functioning. FESS is successful in restoring sinus health, with complete or at least moderate relief of symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Supportive medical treatment is instituted preoperatively and postoperatively. In children, surgical management is not as well established and should be reserved for complicated cases.

Occupational exposure may affect FESS outcomes. Symptoms may persist with work-related exposure to inhaled agents, and revision surgery may be required.[42]

In patients who have undergone endoscopic sinus surgery, total and direct healthcare costs, antibiotic usage, and the total number of imaging studies performed decreased after surgery for at least 3 years. However, the use of oral corticosteroids did not change.[43]

For more information, see the Medscape Reference article Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

Management of Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis

Three main surgical options are available for chronic maxillary sinusitis:

  • Endoscopic uncinectomy with or without maxillary antrostomy
  • Caldwell-Luc procedure
  • Inferior antrostomy (naso-antral window)

Management of Fungal Sinusitis

The preferred treatment for chronic fungal sinusitis is surgical debridement. Mycetomas or fungus balls are best treated by means of surgical removal. Allergic fungal sinusitis, which usually manifests as nasal polyps and allergic sinusitis, is treated by means of systemic steroids and surgical removal of polyps and mucinous secretions. Prolonged postoperative tapering doses of prednisone and anterior nasal glucocorticoid steroids are indicated to suppress the symptoms of fungal CRS.

Some literature has suggested that topical antifungals may have a role in the treatment of CRS[44] ; however, this treatment remains controversial, and other studies have not supported this approach. A recent assessment that included 6 studies (N = 380) showed no statistically significant benefit of topical or systemic antifungals over placebo for the treatment of CRS.[45]


Dietary Measures

Garlic has an active ingredient (allyl thiosulfinate) that provides a short-term decongestant effect. Eating foods highly seasoned with garlic has been considered therapeutic. Chewing horseradish root is another home remedy reported by some patients as effective for clearing the sinuses, but no scientific data support this belief.



The most common complication of chronic sinusitis is superimposed acute sinusitis. In children, the presence of pus in the nasopharynx may cause adenoiditis, and a high percentage of such patients develop secondary serous or purulent otitis media. Dacryocystitis and laryngitis may also occur as complications of chronic sinusitis in children.

Patients should be urgently referred to an otolaryngologist when they manifest any of these signs and/or symptoms: double or reduced vision, proptosis, rapidly developing periorbital edema, ophthalmoplegia, focal neurologic signs, high fever, severe headache, meningeal irritation, or significant or recurrent nose bleeding.[19]

Orbital complications include preseptal cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess, orbital cellulitis, orbital abscess, and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Intracranial complications include meningitis, epidural abscess, subdural abscess, and brain abscess.[19]

Other complications include osteomyelitis and mucocele formation.

Some studies have suggested a higher incidence of complications associated with fungal sinusitis.[46, 47] Untreated chronic sinusitis can lead to life-threatening complications, as in patients with cystic fibrosis.[48]

Individuals with medically resistant CRS exhibit a higher rate of asthma development. Those who have undergone endoscopic surgery early in their course appear to have a decreased risk of asthma.[49]



Persistent or recurrent episodes of sinusitis despite appropriate medical therapy necessitate referral to an otolaryngologist. Examination, including nasal endoscopy and CT scanning, is mandatory to exclude surgically amenable conditions.

A consult with an otolaryngologist should be considered when one of the following occurs:

  • The disease is refractory to maximal medical therapy.
  • The disease has progressed beyond the paranasal sinuses.
  • The disease is unilateral (patient should be evaluated for potential neoplasm).
  • Patients have coexisting morbidities that are exacerbated by the sinus disease.
  • Urgent referral when a complication is suspected (see above)

Seek consultation with an ophthalmologist at the earliest suggestion of orbital involvement. Seek consultation with a dentist when an odontogenic infection is present or suspected.


Long-term Monitoring

Continued outpatient medical treatment with nasal decongestants and topical steroids is important even after surgical treatment.

Nasal douching may improve symptoms, particularly following surgical treatment. Steam inhalation may have a role to liquefy and soften crusts while moisturizing dry inflamed mucosa.

Nasal cavity irrigation using buffered normal saline may have a role in decreasing mucosal edema. Irrigation should be performed at least twice daily.

Patients with presumed allergic rhinitis in conjunction with chronic sinusitis may benefit from an evaluation by an otolaryngologist trained in otolaryngic allergy or an allergist/immunologist. In most instances, prick/puncture tests are performed to clarify the role of allergies.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University School of Medicine

Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International Immunocompromised Host Society, International Society for Infectious Diseases, Medical Society of the District of Columbia, New York Academy of Sciences, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association, Society for Ear, Nose and Throat Advances in Children, American Federation for Clinical Research, Surgical Infection Society, Armed Forces Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Daniel R Hinthorn, MD, FACP Vice Chair of Internal Medicine, Professor of Internal Medicine, Pediatrics (Hon), and Family Medicine (Hon), Director, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Kansas Medical Center

Daniel R Hinthorn, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International Society for Antiviral Research, Kansas Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

John L Brusch, MD, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Medicine and Infectious Disease Service, Cambridge Health Alliance

John L Brusch, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Osama A Abdel Razek, MD, MBBCh, MSc Lecturer in ENT, Suez Canal University Medical School, Egypt

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Himal Bajracharya, MBBS Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Kansas University Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Kenneth C Earhart, MD Deputy Head, Disease Surveillance Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit #3

Kenneth C Earhart, MD, is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Marvin P Fried, MD, FACS Professor and University Chairman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Marvin P Fried, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Bronchoesophagological Association, American College of Surgeons, American Laryngological Association, American Laryngological Rhinological and Otological Society, American Medical Association, American Rhinologic Society, American Society for Head and Neck Surgery, American Society for Laser Medicineand Surgery, American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Massachusetts Medical Society, Phi Beta Kappa, and Society of University Otolaryngologists-Head and Neck Surgeons

Disclosure: Medtronic Consulting fee Consulting; MiMosa Consulting fee Board membership

Babak Sadoughi, MD Fellow in Laryngology/Neurolaryngology, New York Center for Voice and Swallowing Disorders, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Babak Sadoughi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, Association for Research in Otolaryngology, and Medical Society of the State of New York

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

Gordon L Woods, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center

Gordon L Woods, MD, is a member of the following medical societies: Society of General Internal Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics - Subcommittee on Management of Sinusitis and Committee on Quality Management. Clinical practice guideline: management of sinusitis. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep. 108(3):798-808. [Medline].

  2. Slavin RG, Spector SL, Bernstein IL, et al. The diagnosis and management of sinusitis: a practice parameter update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Dec. 116(6 Suppl):S13-47. [Medline].

  3. Report of the Rhinosinusitis Task Force Committee Meeting. Alexandria, Virginia, August 17, 1996. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Sep. 117(3 Pt 2):S1-68. [Medline].

  4. Benninger MS, Ferguson BJ, Hadley JA, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Sep. 129(3 Suppl):S1-32. [Medline].

  5. Meltzer EO, Hamilos DL, Hadley JA, et al. Rhinosinusitis: establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Dec. 114(6 Suppl):155-212. [Medline].

  6. Biel MA, Brown CA, Levinson RM, Garvis GE, Paisner HM, Sigel ME, et al. Evaluation of the microbiology of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1998 Nov. 107(11 Pt 1):942-5. [Medline].

  7. Brook I, Frazier EH, Foote PA. Microbiology of the transition from acute to chronic maxillary sinusitis. J Med Microbiol. 1996 Nov. 45(5):372-5. [Medline].

  8. Ramakrishnan Y, Shields RC, Elbadawey MR, Wilson JA. Biofilms in chronic rhinosinusitis: what is new and where next?. J Laryngol Otol. 2015 Aug. 129 (8):744-51. [Medline].

  9. Brook I, Foote PA, Hausfeld JN. Increase in the frequency of recovery of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. J Med Microbiol. 2008 Aug. 57:1015-7. [Medline].

  10. Brook I. Acute and chronic bacterial sinusitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2007 Jun. 21(2):427-48, vii. [Medline].

  11. Brook I. Bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis in adults. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1989 Jun. 98(6):426-8. [Medline].

  12. Incorvaia C, Leo G. Treatment of rhinosinusitis: other medical options. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010 Jan-Mar. 23(1 Suppl):70-3. [Medline].

  13. Brook I, Yocum P. Immune response to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia in patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999 Mar. 108(3):293-5. [Medline].

  14. Brook I, Foote PA, Frazier EH. Microbiology of acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2004. 114:129-31.

  15. Nadel DM, Lanza DC, Kennedy DW. Endoscopically guided cultures in chronic sinusitis. Am J Rhinol. 1998 Jul-Aug. 12(4):233-41. [Medline].

  16. Ferguson BJ. Definitions of fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2000 Apr. 33(2):227-35. [Medline].

  17. Pleis JR, Lucas JW. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2007. Vital Health Stat 10. 2009 May. 1-159. [Medline].

  18. Shah AR, Hairston JA, Tami TA. Sinusitis in HIV: microbiology and therapy. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2005 Nov. 5(6):495-9. [Medline].

  19. Brook I. Microbiology and antimicrobial treatment of orbital and intracranial complications of sinusitis in children and their management. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Sep. 73(9):1183-6. [Medline].

  20. Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ, Mullol J, Bachert C, Alobid I, Baroody F, et al. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists. Rhinology. 2012 Mar. 50 (1):1-12. [Medline].

  21. Chakrabarti A, Denning DW, Ferguson BJ, et al. Fungal rhinosinusitis: a categorization and definitional schema addressing current controversies. Laryngoscope. 2009 Sep. 119(9):1809-18. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  22. Manes RP, Batra PS. Etiology, diagnosis and management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013 Jan. 11(1):25-35. [Medline].

  23. [Guideline] Rosenfeld RM,Piccirillo JF, Chandrasekhar SS,et al. of. Clinical practice guideline (update) on adult sinusitis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015. 152(2 suppl):S1-S39. [Medline].

  24. Joshi VM, Sansi R. Imaging in Sinonasal Inflammatory Disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2015 Nov. 25 (4):549-68. [Medline].

  25. Paz Silva M, Pinto JM, Corey JP, Mhoon EE, Baroody FM, Naclerio RM. Diagnostic algorithm for unilateral sinus disease: a 15-year retrospective review. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015 Jul. 5 (7):590-6. [Medline].

  26. Benninger MS, Payne SC, Ferguson BJ, Hadley JA, Ahmad N. Endoscopically directed middle meatal cultures versus maxillary sinus taps in acute bacterial maxillary rhinosinusitis: a meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jan. 134(1):3-9. [Medline].

  27. Wise SK, Ahn CN, Lathers DM, Mulligan RM, Schlosser RJ. Antigen-specific IgE in sinus mucosa of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis patients. Am J Rhinol. 2008 Sep-Oct. 22(5):451-6. [Medline].

  28. Rosenfeld RM, Piccirillo JF, Chandrasekhar SS, Brook I, Ashok Kumar K, Kramper M, et al. Clinical practice guideline (update): adult sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Apr. 152 (2 Suppl):S1-S39. [Medline].

  29. United States Food and Drug Administration. Zicam cold remedy nasal products (Cold Remedy Nasal Gel, Cold Remedy Nasal Swabs, and Cold Remedy Saws, Kids Size). MedWatch Public Health Advisory. Available at Accessed: June 16, 2009.

  30. Vaidyanathan S, Barnes M, Williamson P, Hopkinson P, Donnan PT, Lipworth B. Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis with oral steroids followed by topical steroids: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Mar 1. 154(5):293-302. [Medline].

  31. Catalano PJ, Payne SC. Balloon dilation of the frontal recess in patients with chronic frontal sinusitis and advanced sinus disease: an initial report. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009 Feb. 118(2):107-12. [Medline].

  32. Ferguson BJ, Narita M, Yu VL, Wagener MM, Gwaltney JM Jr. Prospective observational study of chronic rhinosinusitis: environmental triggers and antibiotic implications. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jan. 54(1):62-8. [Medline].

  33. Piromchai P, Thanaviratananich S, Laopaiboon M. Systemic antibiotics for chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 May 11. CD008233. [Medline].

  34. Lim M, Citardi MJ, Leong JL. Topical antimicrobials in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis: a systematic review. Am J Rhinol. 2008 Jul-Aug. 22(4):381-9. [Medline].

  35. Ragab S, Parikh A, Darby YC, Scadding GK. An open audit of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in nasal polyposis associated with asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001 Sep. 31(9):1385-91. [Medline].

  36. Van Zele T, Gevaert P, Holtappels G, Beule A, Wormald PJ, Mayr S, et al. Oral steroids and doxycycline: two different approaches to treat nasal polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 May. 125(5):1069-1076.e4. [Medline].

  37. Sreenath SB, Taylor RJ, Miller JD, Ambrose EC, Rawal RB, Ebert CS Jr, et al. A prospective randomized cohort study evaluating 3 weeks vs 6 weeks of oral antibiotic treatment in the setting of "maximal medical therapy" for chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015 May 23. [Medline].

  38. López-Chacón M, Mullol J, Pujols L. Clinical and biological markers of difficult-to-treat severe chronic rhinosinusitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015 May. 15 (5):19. [Medline].

  39. Rudmik L, Soler ZM. Medical Therapies for Adult Chronic Sinusitis: A Systematic Review. JAMA. 2015 Sep 1. 314 (9):926-39. [Medline].

  40. Bhattacharyya N. Radiographic stage fails to predict symptom outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2006 Jan. 116(1):18-22. [Medline].

  41. Welch KC, Stankiewicz JA. A contemporary review of endoscopic sinus surgery: techniques, tools, and outcomes. Laryngoscope. 2009 Nov. 119(11):2258-68. [Medline].

  42. Hox V, Delrue S, Scheers H, Adams E, Keirsbilck S, Jorissen M, et al. Negative impact of occupational exposure on surgical outcome in patients with rhinosinusitis. Allergy. 2012 Jan 9. [Medline].

  43. Purcell PL, Beck S, Davis GE. The impact of endoscopic sinus surgery on total direct healthcare costs among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015 Jun. 5 (6):498-505. [Medline].

  44. Ponikau JU, Sherris DA, Weaver A, Kita H. Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with intranasal amphotericin B: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Jan. 115(1):125-31. [Medline].

  45. Sacks PL, Harvey RJ, Rimmer J, Gallagher RM, Sacks R. Topical and systemic antifungal therapy for the symptomatic treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Aug 10. CD008263. [Medline].

  46. Gupta AK, Bansal S, Gupta A, Mathur N. Is fungal infestation of paranasal sinuses more aggressive in pediatric population?. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Apr. 70(4):603-8. [Medline].

  47. Hakim HE, Malik AC, Aronyk K, Ledi E, Bhargava R. The prevalence of intracranial complications in pediatric frontal sinusitis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Aug. 70(8):1383-7. [Medline].

  48. Sharma GD, Doershuk CF, Stern RC. Erosion of the wall of the frontal sinus caused by mucopyocele in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 1994 May. 124(5 Pt 1):745-7. [Medline].

  49. Benninger MS, Sindwani R, Holy CE, Hopkins C. Impact of medically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis on incidence of asthma. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016 Feb. 6 (2):124-9. [Medline].

  50. Brook I. Treatment modalities for bacterial rhinosinusitis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Apr. 11(5):755-69. [Medline].

  51. Huang A, Govindaraj S. Topical therapy in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Feb. 21(1):31-8. [Medline].

Endoscopic view right nasal cavity; lacrimal bone (L), uncinate process (U), ethmoid bulla (B), middle turbinate (MT), nasal septum (S).
Air-fluid level (arrow) in the maxillary sinus suggests sinusitis.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.