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Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Robert W Derlet, MD; Chief Editor: Burke A Cunha, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 15, 2016
 
 

Diagnostic Considerations

Any of the arthropod-borne viral diseases in their various forms not listed above might be mistaken for Venezuelan equine encephalitis.

Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, in addition to those in the next section, include the following:

  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Western equine encephalitis
  • Eastern equine encephalitis
  • Acute HIV infection
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Colorado tick fever
  • Measles (rubeola)
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Lyme disease
  • Malaria
  • Meningitis
  • Meningococcal infections
  • Meningococcemia
  • Naegleria infection
  • Norwalk virus
  • Picornavirus
  • Q fever
  • Echoviruses
  • Viral hepatitis
  • Herpes simplex

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Robert W Derlet, MD Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of California at Davis School of Medicine; Chief Emeritus, Emergency Department, University of California at Davis Health System

Robert W Derlet, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Iris Reyes, MD Associate Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine, Advisory Dean, Office of Student Affairs, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Iris Reyes, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

William H Shoff, MD, DTM&H Director, PENN Travel Medicine; Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William H Shoff, MD, DTM&H is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, International Society of Travel Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Sarah M Perman, MD, MS Resident, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Health Systems

Sarah M Perman, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

John R Richards, MD, FAAEM Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, Medical Center

John R Richards, MD, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

John L Brusch, MD, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Medicine and Infectious Disease Service, Cambridge Health Alliance

John L Brusch, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Burke A Cunha, MD Professor of Medicine, State University of New York School of Medicine at Stony Brook; Chief, Infectious Disease Division, Winthrop-University Hospital

Burke A Cunha, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Jerry L Mothershead, MD Medical Readiness Consultant, Medical Readiness and Response Group, Battelle Memorial Institute; Advisor, Technical Advisory Committee, Emergency Management Strategic Healthcare Group, Veteran's Health Administration; Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Jerry L Mothershead, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, National Association of EMS Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Suzanne Moore Shepherd, MD, MS, DTM&H, FACEP, FAAEM Associate Professor, Education Officer, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania; Director of Education and Research, PENN Travel Medicine

Suzanne Moore Shepherd, MD, MS, DTM&H, FACEP, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, International Society of Travel Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, and Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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  9. Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Freier JE, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Dec. 10(12):2113-21. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Fine DL, Roberts BA, Teehee ML, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidate (V3526) safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in horses. Vaccine. 2007 Feb 26. 25(10):1868-76. [Medline].

  11. Reed DS, Glass PJ, Bakken RR, Barth JF, Lind CM, da Silva L, et al. Combined alphavirus replicon particle vaccine induces durable and cross-protective immune responses against equine encephalitis viruses. J Virol. 2014 Aug 13. [Medline].

  12. Herbert AS, Kuehne AI, Barth JF, Ortiz RA, Nichols DK, Zak SE, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus. J Virol. 2013 May. 87(9):4952-64. [Medline]. [Full Text].

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