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Rheumatic Fever Medication

  • Author: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 08, 2015
 

Antibiotics

Class Summary

Antibiotic treatment in patients who present with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is necessary irrespective of the throat culture result. Such therapy probably does not alter the risk of developing rheumatic heart disease but at least minimizes the possible transmission of a rheumatogenic streptococcal strain.[1]

Primary prophylaxis (treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis) dramatically reduces the risk of ARF and should be provided whenever a group A streptococcal pharyngitis is confirmed.

Secondary prevention is required to prevent additional streptococcal infections and is the critical step in management of ARF. Patients with a history of rheumatic fever are at a high risk of recurrent ARF, which may further the cardiac damage. The exact duration of chronic antimicrobial prophylaxis remains controversial, but the WHO guidelines are commonly used.[1] There had been concern that sustained benzathine penicillin as secondary prophylaxis would lead to the development of resistant strains of Streptococcus viridans, but a recent study found no support for this hypothesis.[32]

Rheumatic fever with carditis and clinically significant residual heart disease requires antibiotic treatment for a minimum of 10 years after the latest episode; prophylaxis is required until the patient is aged at least 40-45 years and is often continued for life.

Rheumatic fever with carditis and no residual heart disease aside from mild mitral regurgitation requires antibiotic treatment for 10 years or until age 25 years (whichever is longer).

Rheumatic fever without carditis requires antibiotic treatment for 5 years or until the patient is aged 18-21 years (whichever is longer).

Children given penicillin G benzathine at a dose of 1.2 million U IM q4wk experienced a recurrence rate of 0.4 cases per 100 patient-years of observation. ARF recurrence rates have been found to be even lower if penicillin is administered q3wk instead of q4wk. This regimen may be appropriate in patients with severe rheumatic heart disease. Weigh the benefits of a 3-week regimen against patient compliance and cost; compliance is often poor to start with, at least partially due to the pain of the injections.[15] Long-term administration of oral penicillin may be used in lieu of the intramuscular route. Erythromycin or sulfadiazine may be used in patients who are allergic to penicillin.[1, 6]

Penicillin G benzathine (Bicillin L-A)

 

Long-acting depot form of penicillin G. DOC for prophylaxis of streptococcal pharyngitis. Avoids compliance problems of oral regimens.

Penicillin VK (Beepen-VK, Betapen-VK, Pen-Vee K, Robicillin VK, V-Cillin K)

 

Phenoxymethyl derivative of penicillin G is acid-stable, enhancing oral bioavailability. Patient compliance is essential for effectiveness.

Erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, Erythrocin, E-Mycin)

 

Macrolides inhibit protein synthesis, in contrast to penicillin cell wall effects. DOC for primary treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis in penicillin allergy. May use for secondary prophylaxis in patients allergic to penicillin.

Sulfadiazine (Microsulfon)

 

Exerts bacteriostatic action through competitive antagonism with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Microorganisms that require exogenous folic acid and do not synthesize folic acid are not susceptible to the action of sulfonamides. Used in secondary prophylaxis of ARF.

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Anti-inflammatory agents

Class Summary

Salicylates and corticosteroids are the mainstay of the anti-inflammatory treatment of ARF. Avoid anti-inflammatory drugs until diagnosis is confirmed, as they may mask symptoms essential to the diagnosis. Analgesics without anti-inflammatory properties (ie, codeine) are used for mild disease. Corticosteroids and salicylates cannot prevent or modify the development of subsequent rheumatic heart disease but are used for symptomatic relief. Some experts believe steroids are of value in patients with severe or fulminant carditis, but data are sparse.[6]

Clinical or laboratory manifestations of rheumatic inflammation may recur upon cessation of anti-inflammatory therapy. Rebound occurs frequently with corticosteroids; hence, they require gradual tapering rather than abrupt cessation. Salicylates are usually continued for a month following corticosteroid discontinuance.

Aspirin (Anacin, Ascriptin, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer Buffered Aspirin)

 

Used in patients with moderate-to-severe arthritis and carditis without heart failure. Treatment is administered for at least 8 wk.

Prednisone (Deltasone, Liquid-Pred, Meticorten, Orasone, Sterapred)

 

Used in severe carditis and CHF. High-dose prednisone is administered for 2-3 wk, then tapered over 3 wk. IV corticosteroids are reserved for fulminant cases.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Florida Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Larry I Lutwick, MD Professor of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical School; Director, Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Health Care System, Brooklyn Campus

Larry I Lutwick, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jayashree Ravishankar, MD, MRCP Medical Director, STAR Health Center, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center

Jayashree Ravishankar, MD, MRCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Richard B Brown, MD, FACP Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baystate Medical Center; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine

Richard B Brown, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Massachusetts Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD David Ross Boyd Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Stewart G Wolf Endowed Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center; Master of the American College of Physicians; Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Medical Association, Oklahoma State Medical Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of Professors of Medicine, American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Thomas J Marrie, MD Dean of Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine, Canada

Thomas J Marrie, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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