Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Elective Abortion Medication

  • Author: Frances E Casey, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
Updated: Feb 29, 2016

Medication Summary

A surgical abortion is usually performed under local anesthesia. For those modestly tolerant of pain, either intravenous sedation or a preoperative antianxiolytic agent can be administered. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have also been used for preoperative preparation. Narcotics can be used for pain control but are usually not necessary. A variety of agents may be useful for contracting the uterus postprocedure, although in a typical first-trimester procedure, these are not necessary. Agents useful to control bleeding include oxytocin, methylergonovine, or prostaglandins. Mechanical devices (typically intrauterine insertion of a Foley catheter) to control hemorrhage can also be useful. Now specific devices are available that allow for more fluid and coverage of larger uteri.

Postprocedure pain and cramping are effectively treated with a variety of analgesic agents (ie, NSAIDs, Tylenol, codeine, Vicodin).

Dinoprostone (Cervidil, Prepidil, Prostin E2) is a prostaglandin administered vaginally and is approved specifically for the use at term in labor for cervical preparation. It works almost as well as misoprostol, but it is very expensive and not used for abortions for this reason alone.



Class Summary

Antiprogesterone class of drugs used for medical termination. Other potential uses include postcoital contraception, leiomyomatas, endometriosis, endometrial cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, glaucoma, myomas, and Cushing syndrome. Antiprogesterones do not effectively treat ectopic pregnancy and should not be used for this indication.

Mifepristone (Mifeprex, RU-486)


Progesterone receptor antagonist that has 5-times greater affinity for the receptor than progesterone. By blocking progesterone, the hormone that maintains pregnancy, abortion can be completed. Cervix is softened and dilated; decidual necrosis and detachment of the pregnancy at the endometrium and uterine contractions ensue. The FDA-approved dosage regimen consists of a single PO dose of mifepristone on Day 1, followed 24-48 h later by a single buccal dose of mifepristone.



Class Summary

Some agents in this category can stimulate uterine contractility and result in expulsion of the fetus. They can be used to induce abortion between 13-20 weeks of pregnancy.

Misoprostol (Cytotec)


Not approved for use in pregnancy, yet is an invaluable medication widely used for medical abortion, cervical preparation for abortion, and labor induction. Provides safe, passive method of cervical dilatation and should be considered for preabortion ripening in later first trimester cases or in cases of cervical stenosis. There is some association with uterine rupture when using misoprostol for labor induction in patients with prior cesarean section so it should be used with caution. 

The FDA-approved dosage regimen consists of a single PO dose of mifepristone on Day 1, followed 24-48 h later by a single buccal dose of mifepristone. Because most women will expel the pregnancy within 2-24 hr of taking misoprostol, discuss with the patient an appropriate location for her to be when she takes the misoprostol.

In a study by Singh of primigravid women (6-11 wk gestation), 93.3% achieved dilatation of the cervix of 8 mm or greater after 3 h of postintravaginal misoprostol at 400 mcg, whereas only 16.7% of women achieved this after 2 h at 600 mcg. The 600-mcg group had slightly greater adverse effects (eg, bleeding, abdominal pain, fever >38°C). Dosage intended for cervical ripening can induce abortion in some patients.

Carboprost tromethamine (Hemabate)


Prostaglandin similar to F2-alpha (dinoprost) but has longer duration and produces myometrial contractions that induce hemostasis at placentation site, which reduces postpartum bleeding.



Class Summary

Methotrexate has been used for more than 15 years for the medical treatment of early, unruptured ectopic pregnancies. Success rate for this indication is greater than 90%. Adverse effects are minimal and regimens are cost effective. This offers effective destruction of rapidly dividing placental cells. Used for medical termination of pregnancy, although for complete expulsion, usually must be administered in conjunction with prostaglandin.

Methotrexate (Folex PFS, Rheumatrex)


Antimetabolite that works by blocking enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, thereby inhibiting folate production and, thus, DNA synthesis. Primarily affects rapidly dividing cells first, such as trophoblast cells.


Local anesthetics

Class Summary

A few patients can tolerate cervical dilatation and suction curettage with no anesthesia and also through relaxation techniques. Paracervical blockade provides some additional cervical compliance in the dilatation phase and all the anesthetic necessary for early abortion procedures.

Lidocaine (Xylocaine)


Used for paracervical block to keep the patient comfortable during procedure. Local anesthetic blocks nerve impulses by decreasing sodium influx across neuronal cell membranes. Alternatively, chloroprocaine (Nesacaine) may be used.



Class Summary

The rapid and complete emptying of the uterus usually provides a natural uterine contraction process that successfully halts postabortion blood loss and eventually leads to normal uterine blood loss and normal uterine involution back to the prepregnant state. The uterotonic medications are typically used to enhance this process or to halt immediate postabortion bleeding. In some cases, these drugs can be inducers of uterine activity that are potent enough to lead to abortion without other drugs or regimens.

Oxytocin (Pitocin)


Produces rhythmic uterine contractions and can stimulate the gravid uterus. Also has vasopressive and antidiuretic effects. Can also control postpartum bleeding or hemorrhage. As the majority of oxytocin receptors develop in the late second to early third trimester, oxytocin is less effective than misoprostol for labor induction in the second trimester.  However, high dose oxytocin protocols may be used where prostaglandins are not available. (Labor induction abortion in the second trimester, Society of Family Planning Clinical Guidelines, Contraception 2011.)


Ergot alkaloids

Class Summary

Also in the category of uterotonics and used almost exclusively for treatment of postabortal bleeding, atony, or hemorrhage.

Methylergonovine (Methergine)


Acts directly on uterine smooth muscle, causing a sustained tetanic uterotonic effect that reduces uterine bleeding. Administer IM during puerperium, delivery of placenta, or after delivering anterior shoulder. Also may be administered IV, over no less than 60 s, but should not be administered routinely because it may provoke hypertension or a cerebrovascular accident. Monitor BP closely when administering IV.



Class Summary

During surgical abortion, relaxation techniques and local anesthetic is typically all that is required for adequate pain relief. In some patients, the use of IV, PO, or SL sedatives can enhance this effect.



Shorter-acting benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic useful in patients requiring acute and/or short-term sedation. Also useful for its amnestic effects.



Class Summary

Antiemetics are not typically necessary unless patients have preexisting nausea and vomiting of pregnancy or have nausea and vomiting in reaction to general anesthesia.

Prochlorperazine (Compazine, Compro)


May relieve nausea and vomiting by blocking postsynaptic mesolimbic dopamine receptors through anticholinergic effects and depressing reticular activating system.

Promethazine (Phenergan, Promethegan, Phenadoz)


Antidopaminergic agent effective in treating emesis. Blocks postsynaptic mesolimbic dopaminergic receptors in brain and reduces stimuli to brainstem reticular system.



Class Summary

Most antibiotics are used prophylactically to prevent postoperative endometritis. Some institutions have used dosages that would cover chlamydia and gonorrhea because patients often cannot be contacted after an abortion.

Doxycycline (Vibramycin, Morgidox, Adoxa, Monodox, Oracea)


Inhibits protein synthesis and thus bacterial growth by binding to 30S and possibly 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria. Prophylaxis of postabortion infections. If contraindicated, use erythromycin or ampicillin. Suspected cervicitis for chlamydia.

Erythromycin (Ery-tab, Erythrocin, E.E.S. 400, PCE)


Inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl t-RNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest. For treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal infections. Prophylaxis of postabortion infections. Use if doxycycline is contraindicated.

Metronidazole (Flagyl, Metro)


Recommended as an alternative for endometritis prophylaxis.


Immune globulins

Class Summary

Pregnancies past 5 weeks of gestation may have an established fetal blood system, and Rh sensitization can occur without administration. Typically, no preadministration antibody screens are performed in this patient population.

Rh0(D) immune globulin (RhoGAM, HyperRHO S/D, Prophylac, WinRHO SDF)


Given to Rh(-) mothers to avoid sensitization to Rh(+) fetal blood.



Class Summary

NSAIDs are readily available, relatively inexpensive, and have a low side effect profile when used cautiously and in those who have no contraindications. Diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, meclofenamate, mefenamic acid, and naproxen are some of the NSAIDs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat pain. A variety of opioids can also be used to treat cramping.

Naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve, Anaprox)


Naproxen is available in both prescription and nonprescription doses. It inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase, thereby decreasing prostaglandin synthesis. The daily cost is approximately $3.00, compared with $0.14 for generic ibuprofen.

Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, NeoProfen)


Ibuprofen is available in both prescription and nonprescription doses. It inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase, thereby decreasing prostaglandin synthesis. If not contraindicated, it is the drug of choice for treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren XR, Cambia, Zipsor)


Diclofenac is one of a series of phenylacetic acids that have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in pharmacologic studies. It inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase, thereby decreasing prostaglandin synthesis.

Because diclofenac can cause hepatotoxicity, liver enzymes should be monitored in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Diclofenac is rapidly absorbed; metabolism occurs in the liver via demethylation, deacetylation, and glucuronide conjugation. The delayed-release, enteric-coated form is diclofenac sodium, and the immediate-release form is diclofenac potassium. Diclofenac carries a relatively low risk of bleeding gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers.

Ketoprofen (Nexcede)


Ketoprofen inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase, thereby decreasing prostaglandin synthesis. Smaller initial dosages are particularly indicated in the elderly and in those with renal or liver dysfunction. Doses higher than 75 mg do not improve therapeutic response and may be associated with a higher incidence of adverse effects.



Meclofenamate inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase, thereby decreasing prostaglandin synthesis. Compared with other NSAIDs, it is associated with a higher incidence of diarrhea.

Mefenamic acid


Mefenamic acid inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase, thereby decreasing prostaglandin synthesis. Compared with other NSAIDs, it is associated with a higher incidence of diarrhea.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Aspirin Free Anacin Extra Strength, Acephen, Cetafen)


This is the drug of choice (DOC) for treating pain in patients with documented hypersensitivity to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), who are diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal disease, or who take oral anticoagulants.

Codeine/acetaminophen (Tylenol #3, Tylenol #4, Tylenol with Codeine)


Acetaminophen and codeine combination is used for the treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Hydrocodone/acetaminophen (Anexsia, Hycet, Lorcet)


This combination is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

Oxycodone/acetaminophen (Endocet, Percocet, Primlev)


The combination of oxycodone and acetaminophen is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain. It is the DOC for aspirin-hypersensitive patients.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Frances E Casey, MD, MPH Director of Family Planning Services, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VCU Medical Center

Frances E Casey, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, Society of Family Planning, National Abortion Federation, Physicians for Reproductive Health

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

A David Barnes, MD, MPH, PhD, FACOG Consulting Staff, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mammoth Hospital (Mammoth Lakes, CA), Pioneer Valley Hospital (Salt Lake City, UT), Warren General Hospital (Warren, PA), and Mountain West Hospital (Tooele, UT)

A David Barnes, MD, MPH, PhD, FACOG is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Forensic Examiners Institute, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, American Medical Association, Utah Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michel E Rivlin, MD Former Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Mississippi School of Medicine

Michel E Rivlin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Medical Association, Mississippi State Medical Association, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Steven David Spandorfer, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College

Steven David Spandorfer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Suzanne R Trupin, MD, FACOG Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign; CEO and Owner, Women's Health Practice; CEO and Owner, Hada Cosmetic Medicine and Midwest Surgical Center

Suzanne R Trupin, MD, FACOG is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, American Medical Association, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, International Society for Clinical Densitometry, and North American Menopause Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Mikolajczak M, Bilewicz M. Foetus or child? Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness. Br J Soc Psychol. 2014 Nov 24. [Medline].

  2. Raymond EG, Grimes DA. The comparative safety of legal induced abortion and childbirth in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Feb. 119(2 Pt 1):215-9. [Medline].

  3. Stulberg DB, Dude AM, Dahlquist I, Curlin FA. Abortion provision among practicing obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Sep. 118(3):609-14. [Medline].

  4. Bridges KM. When pregnancy is an injury: rape, law, and culture. Stanford Law Rev. 2013 Mar. 65(3):457-516. [Medline].

  5. Turk JK, Preskill F, Landy U, Rocca CH, Steinauer JE. Availability and characteristics of abortion training in US ob-gyn residency programs: a national survey. Contraception. 2014 Apr. 89(4):271-7. [Medline].

  6. Shanahan MA, Metheny WP, Star J, Peipert JF. Induced abortion. Physician training and practice patterns. J Reprod Med. 1999 May. 44(5):428-32. [Medline].

  7. Joffe C. The politicization of abortion and the evolution of abortion counseling. Am J Public Health. 2013 Jan. 103(1):57-65. [Medline].

  8. Cunningham GF, MacDonald PC, Gant NF. Abortion. Williams Obstetrics. 19th ed. 1993. 661-90.

  9. Induced Abortion in the United States. Guttmacher Institute. Available at July 2014; Accessed: February 29, 2015.

  10. Chasen ST, Kalish RB, Gupta M, Kaufman JE, Rashbaum WK, Chervenak FA. Dilation and evacuation at >or=20 weeks: comparison of operative techniques. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May. 190(5):1180-3. [Medline].

  11. Bryant AG, Grimes DA, Garrett JM, Stuart GS. Second-trimester abortion for fetal anomalies or fetal death: labor induction compared with dilation and evacuation. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Apr. 117(4):788-92. [Medline].

  12. Borgatta L, Kapp N. Clinical guidelines. Labor induction abortion in the second trimester. Contraception. 2011 Jul. 84(1):4-18. [Medline].

  13. Kahn JG, Becker BJ, MacIsaa L, et al. The efficacy of medical abortion: a meta-analysis. Contraception. 2000 Jan. 61(1):29-40. [Medline].

  14. Koenig JD, Tapias MP, Hoff T, Stewart FH. Are US health professionals likely to prescribe mifepristone or methotrexate?. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):155-60. [Medline].

  15. Clark W, Bracken H, Tanenhaus J, Schweikert S, Lichtenberg ES, Winikoff B. Alternatives to a routine follow-up visit for early medical abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Feb. 115(2 Pt 1):264-72. [Medline].

  16. Jones RK, Finer LB, Singh S. Characteristics of U.S. Abortion Patients, 2008. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2010.

  17. Hayes JL, Achilles SL, Creinin MD, Reeves MF. Outcomes of medical abortion through 63 days in women with twin gestations. Contraception. 2011 Nov. 84(5):505-7. [Medline].

  18. Kornfield SL, Geller PA. Mental health outcomes of abortion and its alternatives: implications for future policy. Womens Health Issues. 2010 Mar-Apr. 20(2):92-5. [Medline].

  19. Ngoc NT, Shochet T, Raghavan S, et al. Mifepristone and misoprostol compared with misoprostol alone for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Sep. 118(3):601-8. [Medline].

  20. Grossman D, Grindlay K, Buchacker T, Lane K, Blanchard K. Effectiveness and acceptability of medical abortion provided through telemedicine. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Aug. 118(2 Pt 1):296-303. [Medline].

  21. Mifeprex (misoprostol) [package insert]. New York, NY: Danco Laboratories, LCC. March 2016. Available at [Full Text].

  22. Dickinson JE, Doherty DA. Optimization of third-stage management after second-trimester medical pregnancy termination. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Sep. 201(3):303.e1-7. [Medline].

  23. Wildschut H, Both MI, Medema S, Thomee E, Wildhagen MF, Kapp N. Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19. 1:CD005216. [Medline].

  24. Challis D, Gratacos E, Deprest JA. Cord occlusion techniques for selective termination in monochorionic twins. J Perinat Med. 1999. 27(5):327-38. [Medline].

  25. Edlow AG, Hou MY, Maurer R, Benson C, Delli-Bovi L, Goldberg AB. Uterine evacuation for second-trimester fetal death and maternal morbidity. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Feb. 117(2 Pt 1):307-16. [Medline].

  26. Thompson KM, Speidel JJ, Saporta V, Waxman NJ, Harper CC. Contraceptive policies affect post-abortion provision of long-acting reversible contraception. Contraception. 2011 Jan. 83(1):41-7. [Medline].

  27. Pridmore BR, Chambers DG. Uterine perforation during surgical abortion: a review of diagnosis, management and prevention. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Aug. 39(3):349-53. [Medline].

  28. Hakim-Elahi E, Tovell HM, Burnhill MS. Complications of first-trimester abortion: a report of 170,000 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jul. 76(1):129-35. [Medline].

  29. Kafrissen ME, Barke MW, Workman P, Schulz KF, Grimes DA. Coagulopathy and induced abortion methods: rates and relative risks. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Oct 1. 147(3):344-5. [Medline].

  30. Perry KG Jr, Rinehart BK, Terrone DA, Martin RW, May WL, Roberts WE. Second-trimester uterine evacuation: A comparison of intra-amniotic (15S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha and intravaginal misoprostol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Nov. 181(5 Pt 1):1057-61. [Medline].

  31. Kuppermann M, Nakagawa S, Cohen SR, et al. Attitudes toward prenatal testing and pregnancy termination among a diverse population of parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Prenat Diagn. 2011 Dec. 31(13):1251-8. [Medline].

  32. Grimes DA. Estimation of pregnancy-related mortality risk by pregnancy outcome, United States, 1991 to 1999. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jan. 194(1):92-4. [Medline].

  33. Zhou W, Sorensen HT, Olsen J. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec. 94(6):948-53. [Medline].

  34. Hendricks MS, Chow YH, Bhagavath B, Singh K. Previous cesarean section and abortion as risk factors for developing placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1999 Apr. 25(2):137-42. [Medline].

  35. Eras JL, Saftlas AF, Triche E, Hsu CD, Risch HA, Bracken MB. Abortion and its effect on risk of preeclampsia and transient hypertension. Epidemiology. 2000 Jan. 11(1):36-43. [Medline].

  36. Acharya PS, Gluckman SJ. Bacteremia following placement of intracervical laminaria tents. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Sep. 29(3):695-7. [Medline].

  37. ACOG. ACOG practice bulletin. Clinical management guidelines of obstetrician-gynecologists. Number 67, October 2005. Medical management of abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct. 106(4):871-82. [Medline].

  38. ACOG. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Methods of Midtrimester Abortion. ACOG Technical Bulletin. 1987. 109:602-05.

  39. ACOG Compendium of Selected Publications. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Abortion Policy. 2005. 865-867.

  40. Aiyer AN, Ruiz G, Steinman A, Ho GY. Influence of physician attitudes on willingness to perform abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Apr. 93(4):576-80. [Medline].

  41. Ashok PW, Templeton A. Nonsurgical mid-trimester termination of pregnancy: a review of 500 consecutive cases. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Jul. 106(7):706-10. [Medline].

  42. Baird DT. Mode of action of medical methods of abortion. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):121-6. [Medline].

  43. Ballagh SA, Harris HA, Demasio K. Is curettage needed for uncomplicated incomplete spontaneous abortion?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov. 179(5):1279-82. [Medline].

  44. Bartholomew LL, Grimes DA. The alleged association between induced abortion and risk of breast cancer: biology or bias?. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1998 Nov. 53(11):708-14. [Medline].

  45. Begley AM. Preparation for practice in the new millennium: a discussion of the moral implications of multifetal pregnancy reduction. Nurs Ethics. 2000 Mar. 7(2):99-112. [Medline].

  46. Berer M. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice. Bull World Health Organ. 2000. 78(5):580-92. [Medline].

  47. Bernick BA, Ufberg DD, Nemiroff R, Donnenfeld A, Tolosa JE. Success rate of cytogenetic analysis at the time of second-trimester dilation and evacuation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Oct. 179(4):957-61. [Medline].

  48. Bernstein PS, Rosenfield A. Abortion and maternal health. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998 Dec. 63 Suppl 1:S115-22. [Medline].

  49. Blanchard K, Winikoff B, Ellertson C. Misoprostol used alone for the termination of early pregnancy. A review of the evidence. Contraception. 1999 Apr. 59(4):209-17. [Medline].

  50. Borgatta L, Burnhill M, Haskell S, Nichols M, Leonhardt K. Instituting medical abortion services: changes in outcome and acceptability related to provider experience. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):173-6. [Medline].

  51. Borgatta L, Chen AY, Reid SK, Stubblefield PG, Christensen DD, Rashbaum WK. Pelvic embolization for treatment of hemorrhage related to spontaneous and induced abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Sep. 185(3):530-6. [Medline].

  52. Borgmann CE, Jones BS. Legal issues in the provision of medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug. 183(2 Suppl):S84-94. [Medline].

  53. Bourguignon A, Briscoe B, Nemzer L. Genetic abortion: considerations for patient care. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 1999 Sep. 13(2):47-58. [Medline].

  54. Breitbart V, Repass DC. The counseling component of medical abortion. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):164-6. [Medline].

  55. Cakir L, Dilbaz B, Caliskan E, Dede FS, Dilbaz S, Haberal A. Comparison of oral and vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening before manual vacuum aspiration of first trimester pregnancy under local anesthesia: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Contraception. 2005 May. 71(5):337-42. [Medline].

  56. Castadot RG. Pregnancy termination: techniques, risks, and complications and their management. Fertil Steril. 1986 Jan. 45(1):5-17. [Medline].

  57. Cates W, Ellertson C. Contraceptive Technology. Hatcher RA, Trussel J, Stewart F, et al. Abortion. 17th ed. New York, NY: Ardent Media; 1998. 682-697.

  58. Chapman SJ, Crispens M, Owen J, Savage K. Complications of midtrimester pregnancy termination: the effect of prior cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Oct. 175(4 Pt 1):889-92. [Medline].

  59. Christin-Maitre S, Bouchard P, Spitz IM. Medical termination of pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 30. 342(13):946-56. [Medline].

  60. Chung TK, Lee DT, Cheung LP, Haines CJ, Chang AM. Spontaneous abortion: a randomized, controlled trial comparing surgical evacuation with conservative management using misoprostol. Fertil Steril. 1999 Jun. 71(6):1054-9. [Medline].

  61. Clark S, Ellertson C, Winikoff B. Is medical abortion acceptable to all American women: the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on the acceptability of mifepristone-misoprostol abortion. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):177-82. [Medline].

  62. Cohen AL, Bhatnagar J, Reagan S, et al. Toxic shock associated with Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Nov. 110(5):1027-33. [Medline].

  63. Cole DS, Bruck LR. Anaphylaxis after laminaria insertion. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun. 95(6 Pt 2):1025. [Medline].

  64. Collins MK, Moreau JF, Opel D, et al. Compliance with pregnancy prevention measures during isotretinoin therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Jan. 70(1):55-9. [Medline].

  65. Cook RJ, Dickens BM. Human rights and abortion laws. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 Apr. 65(1):81-7. [Medline].

  66. Coyaji K. Early medical abortion in India: three studies and their implications for abortion services. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):191-4. [Medline].

  67. Creinin MD. Conception rates after abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 May. 65(2):183-8. [Medline].

  68. Creinin MD. Medical abortion regimens: historical context and overview. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug. 183(2 Suppl):S3-9. [Medline].

  69. Creinin MD, Fox MC, Teal S, Chen A, Schaff EA, Meyn LA. A randomized comparison of misoprostol 6 to 8 hours versus 24 hours after mifepristone for abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May. 103(5 Pt 1):851-9. [Medline].

  70. Creinin MD, Jerald H. Success rates and estimation of gestational age for medical abortion vary with transvaginal ultrasonographic criteria. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jan. 180(1 Pt 1):35-41. [Medline].

  71. Creinin MD, Pymar HC. Medical abortion alternatives to mifepristone. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):127-32, 150. [Medline].

  72. Creinin MD, Spitz IM. Use of various ultrasonographic criteria to evaluate the efficacy of mifepristone and misoprostol for medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec. 181(6):1419-24. [Medline].

  73. Creinin MD, Wiebe E, Gold M. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion in adolescent women. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 1999 May. 12(2):71-7. [Medline].

  74. Daling JR, Emanuel I. Induced abortion and subsequent outcome of pregnancy. A matched cohort study. Lancet. 1975 Jul 26. 2(7926):170-3. [Medline].

  75. Davis A, Westhoff C, De Nonno L. Bleeding patterns after early abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol or manual vacuum aspiration. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):141-4. [Medline].

  76. Dean G, Cardenas L, Darney P, Goldberg A. Acceptability of manual versus electric aspiration for first trimester abortion: a randomized trial. Contraception. 2003 Mar. 67(3):201-6. [Medline].

  77. Delfs E, Katayama KP. Surgical Management of Reproductive Failure and Abortion. Te Linde's Operative Gynecology. Fifth Edition. 1977. 429-451.

  78. Dobie SA, Hart LG, Glusker A, Madigan D, Larson EH, Rosenblatt RA. Abortion services in rural Washington State, 1983-1984 to 1993-1994: availability and outcomes. Fam Plann Perspect. 1999 Sep-Oct. 31(5):241-5. [Medline].

  79. Drey EA, Thomas LJ, Benowitz NL, Goldschlager N, Darney PD. Safety of intra-amniotic digoxin administration before late second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 May. 182(5):1063-6. [Medline].

  80. Edmondson AS, Cooke EM. The development and assessment of a bacteriocin typing method for Klebsiella. J Hyg (Lond). 1979 Apr. 82(2):207-23. [Medline].

  81. Elimian A, Verma U, Tejani N. Effect of causing fetal cardiac asystole on second-trimester abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jul. 94(1):139-41. [Medline].

  82. Elul B, Ellertson C, Winikoff B, Coyaji K. Side effects of mifepristone-misoprostol abortion versus surgical abortion. Data from a trial in China, Cuba, and India. Contraception. 1999 Feb. 59(2):107-14. [Medline].

  83. Elul B, Pearlman E, Sorhaindo A, Simonds W, Westhoff C. In-depth interviews with medical abortion clients: thoughts on the method and home administration of misoprostol. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):169-72. [Medline].

  84. Epner JE, Jonas HS, Seckinger DL. Late-term abortion. JAMA. 1998 Aug 26. 280(8):724-9. [Medline].

  85. Evans MI, Goldberg JD, Horenstein J, et al. Selective termination for structural, chromosomal, and mendelian anomalies: international experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Oct. 181(4):893-7. [Medline].

  86. Fitzpatrick KM, Wilson M. Exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptomatology among abortion clinic workers. J Trauma Stress. 1999 Apr. 12(2):227-42. [Medline].

  87. Fong YF, Singh K, Prasad RN. Severe hyperthermia following use of vaginal misoprostol for pre-operative cervical priming. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 Jan. 64(1):73-4. [Medline].

  88. Frank PI, McNamee R, Hannaford PC, Kay CR, Hirsch S. The effect of induced abortion on subsequent pregnancy outcome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1991 Oct. 98(10):1015-24. [Medline].

  89. Gerhardt A, Zotz RB, Stockschlaeder M, Scharf RE. Fondaparinux is an effective alternative anticoagulant in pregnant women with high risk of venous thromboembolism and intolerance to low-molecular-weight heparins and heparinoids. Thromb Haemost. 2007 Mar. 97(3):496-7. [Medline].

  90. Geva E, Fait G, Yovel I, et al. Second-trimester multifetal pregnancy reduction facilitates prenatal diagnosis before the procedure. Fertil Steril. 2000 Mar. 73(3):505-8. [Medline].

  91. Gouk EV, Lincoln K, Khair A, Haslock J, Knight J, Cruickshank DJ. Medical termination of pregnancy at 63 to 83 days gestation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Jun. 106(6):535-9. [Medline].

  92. Grimes D, Schulz K, Stanwood N. Immediate post-abortal insertion of intrauterine devices. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000. CD001777. [Medline].

  93. Grimes DA. A 26-year-old woman seeking an abortion. JAMA. 1999 Sep 22-29. 282(12):1169-75. [Medline].

  94. Grimes DA. The continuing need for late abortions. JAMA. 1998 Aug 26. 280(8):747-50. [Medline].

  95. Grimes DA. Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge. Br Med Bull. 2003. 67:99-113. [Medline].

  96. Grimes DA, Schulz KF. Morbidity and mortality from second-trimester abortions. J Reprod Med. 1985 Jul. 30(7):505-14. [Medline].

  97. Hamoda H, Ashok PW, Flett GM, Templeton A. A randomised controlled trial of mifepristone in combination with misoprostol administered sublingually or vaginally for medical abortion up to 13 weeks of gestation. BJOG. 2005 Aug. 112(8):1102-8. [Medline].

  98. Hamoda H, Ashok PW, Flett GM, Templeton A. Medical abortion at 64 to 91 days of gestation: a review of 483 consecutive cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 May. 188(5):1315-9. [Medline].

  99. Hamoda H, Ashok PW, Flett GM, Templeton A. Medical abortion at 9-13 weeks' gestation: a review of 1076 consecutive cases. Contraception. 2005 May. 71(5):327-32. [Medline].

  100. Hassouna A, Allam H. Limited dose warfarin throughout pregnancy in patients with mechanical heart valve prosthesis: a meta-analysis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2014 Jun. 18(6):797-806. [Medline].

  101. Heath V, Chadwick V, Cooke I, Manek S, MacKenzie IZ. Should tissue from pregnancy termination and uterine evacuation routinely be examined histologically?. BJOG. 2000 Jun. 107(6):727-30. [Medline].

  102. Hellberg D, Mogilevkina I, Mardh PA. Sexually transmitted diseases and gynecologic symptoms and signs in women with a history of induced abortion. Sex Transm Dis. 1999 Apr. 26(4):197-200. [Medline].

  103. Henshaw SK. Abortion incidence and services in the United States, 1995-1996. Fam Plann Perspect. 1998 Nov-Dec. 30(6):263-70, 287. [Medline].

  104. Hern WM. Second-trimester surgical abortions. Sciarra JJ. Gynecology and Obstetrics. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Co; 2002.

  105. Isley MM, Blumenthal P. Medical Abortion What's Old, what's new?. Contemporary OB GYN. 2008 Apr 15. 30-38.

  106. Jackson RA, Teplin VL, Drey EA, Thomas LJ, Darney PD. Digoxin to facilitate late second-trimester abortion: a randomized, masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Mar. 97(3):471-6. [Medline].

  107. Jain JK, Kuo J, Mishell DR Jr. A comparison of two dosing regimens of intravaginal misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Apr. 93(4):571-5. [Medline].

  108. Jain JK, Meckstroth KR, Mishell DR Jr. Early pregnancy termination with intravaginally administered sodium chloride solution-moistened misoprostol tablets: historical comparison with mifepristone and oral misoprostol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec. 181(6):1386-91. [Medline].

  109. Jain JK, Meckstroth KR, Park M, Mishell DR Jr. A comparison of tamoxifen and misoprostol to misoprostol alone for early pregnancy termination. Contraception. 1999 Dec. 60(6):353-6. [Medline].

  110. Jensen JT, Harvey SM, Beckman LJ. Acceptability of suction curettage and mifepristone abortion in the United States: a prospective comparison study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun. 182(6):1292-9. [Medline].

  111. Jensen MP, Miller L, Fisher LD. Assessment of pain during medical procedures: a comparison of three scales. Clin J Pain. 1998 Dec. 14(4):343-9. [Medline].

  112. Jermy K, Oyelese O, Bourne T. Uterine anomalies and failed surgical termination of pregnancy: the role of routine preoperative transvaginal sonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec. 14(6):431-3. [Medline].

  113. Jones BS, Heller S. Providing medical abortion: legal issues of relevance to providers. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):145-50. [Medline].

  114. Joyce T, Kaestner R. The impact of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on the timing of abortion. Fam Plann Perspect. 2000 Jan-Feb. 32(1):4-13. [Medline].

  115. Kafrissen ME, Grimes DA, Hogue CJ, Sacks JJ. Cluster of abortion deaths at a single facility. Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Sep. 68(3):387-9. [Medline].

  116. Kalish RB, Chasen ST, Rosenzweig LB, Rashbaum WK, Chervenak FA. Impact of midtrimester dilation and evacuation on subsequent pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Oct. 187(4):882-5. [Medline].

  117. Keder LM. Best practices in surgical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Aug. 189(2):418-22. [Medline].

  118. Kero A, Hogberg U, Lalos A. Wellbeing and mental growth-long-term effects of legal abortion. Soc Sci Med. 2004 Jun. 58(12):2559-69. [Medline].

  119. Kero A. Wellbeing and mental growth - long term effects of legal abortion.

  120. Kjems E, Krag C. Melanoma and pregnancy. A review. Acta Oncol. 1993. 32(4):371-8. [Medline].

  121. Koonin LM. Abortion reporting in the era of medical procedures: why is it important?. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):203-4. [Medline].

  122. Kruse B. Advanced practice clinicians and medical abortion: increasing access to care. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):167-8. [Medline].

  123. Kruse B, Poppema S, Creinin MD, Paul M. Management of side effects and complications in medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug. 183(2 Suppl):S65-75. [Medline].

  124. Lagan BM, Dolk H, White B, Uges DR, Sinclair M. Assessing the availability of the teratogenic drug isotretinoin outside the pregnancy prevention programme: a survey of e-pharmacies. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Apr. 23(4):411-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  125. Lahteenmaki P, Luukkainen T. Return of ovarian function after abortion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1978 Feb. 8(2):123-32. [Medline].

  126. Larsson PG, Platz-Christensen JJ, Dalaker K, et al. Treatment with 2% clindamycin vaginal cream prior to first trimester surgical abortion to reduce signs of postoperative infection: a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000 May. 79(5):390-6. [Medline].

  127. Lazovich D, Thompson JA, Mink PJ, Sellers TA, Anderson KE. Induced abortion and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology. 2000 Jan. 11(1):76-80. [Medline].

  128. Levgur M, Abadi MA, Tucker A. Adenomyosis: symptoms, histology, and pregnancy terminations. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 May. 95(5):688-91. [Medline].

  129. Lichtenberg ES, Shott S. A randomized clinical trial of prophylaxis for vacuum abortion: 3 versus 7 days of doxycycline. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Apr. 101(4):726-31. [Medline].

  130. Linn S, Schoenbaum SC, Monson RR, Rosner B, Stubblefield PG, Ryan KJ. The relationship between induced abortion and outcome of subsequent pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 May 15. 146(2):136-40. [Medline].

  131. Lokeland M, Iversen OE, Dahle GS, Nappen MH, Ertzeid L, Bjorge L. Medical abortion at 63 to 90 days of gestation. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 May. 115(5):962-8. [Medline].

  132. Macisaac L, Darney P. Early surgical abortion: an alternative to and backup for medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug. 183(2 Suppl):S76-83. [Medline].

  133. MacIsaac L, Grossman D, Balistreri E, Darney P. A randomized controlled trial of laminaria, oral misoprostol, and vaginal misoprostol before abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 May. 93(5 Pt 1):766-70. [Medline].

  134. Major B, Gramzow RH. Abortion as stigma: cognitive and emotional implications of concealment. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999 Oct. 77(4):735-45. [Medline].

  135. Mansfield C, Hopfer S, Marteau TM. Termination rates after prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome, spina bifida, anencephaly, and Turner and Klinefelter syndromes: a systematic literature review. European Concerted Action: DADA (Decision-making After the Diagnosis of a fetal Abnormality). Prenat Diagn. 1999 Sep. 19(9):808-12. [Medline].

  136. Martin CW, Brown AH, Baird DT. A pilot study of the effect of methotrexate or combined oral contraceptive on bleeding patterns after induction of abortion with mifepristone and a prostaglandin pessary. Contraception. 1998 Aug. 58(2):99-103. [Medline].

  137. Mayr NA, Wen BC, Saw CB. Radiation therapy during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1998 Jun. 25(2):301-21. [Medline].

  138. Mcfarlane DR. Induced abortion: an historical overview. Am J Gynecol Health. 1993 May-Jun. 7(3):77-82. [Medline].

  139. Medich DS, Fazio VW. Hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and carcinoma of the colon, rectum, and anus during pregnancy. Surg Clin North Am. 1995 Feb. 75(1):77-88. [Medline].

  140. Miller VL, Ransom SB, Shalhoub A, Sokol RJ, Evans MI. Multifetal pregnancy reduction: perinatal and fiscal outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun. 182(6):1575-80. [Medline].

  141. Nielsen S, Hahlin M, Platz-Christensen J. Randomised trial comparing expectant with medical management for first trimester miscarriages. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Aug. 106(8):804-7. [Medline].

  142. Oteri O, Hopkins R. Second trimester therapeutic abortion using mifepristone and oral misoprostol in a woman with two previous caesarean sections and a cone biopsy. J Matern Fetal Med. 1999 Nov-Dec. 8(6):300-1. [Medline].

  143. Owen J, Hauth JC. Vaginal misoprostol vs. concentrated oxytocin plus low-dose prostaglandin E2 for second trimester pregnancy termination. J Matern Fetal Med. 1999 Mar-Apr. 8(2):48-50. [Medline].

  144. Pakarinen P, Toivonen J, Luukkainen T. Randomized comparison of levonorgestrel- and copper-releasing intrauterine systems immediately after abortion, with 5 years' follow-up. Contraception. 2003 Jul. 68(1):31-4. [Medline].

  145. Papiernik E, Grange G, Zeitlin J. Should multifetal pregnancy reduction be used for prevention of preterm deliveries in triplet or higher order multiple pregnancies?. J Perinat Med. 1998. 26(5):365-70. [Medline].

  146. Paul M. Office management of early induced abortion. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun. 42(2):290-305. [Medline].

  147. Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L. A Clinician's Guide to Medical and Surgical Abortion. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1999.

  148. Paul M, Schaff E, Nichols M. The roles of clinical assessment, human chorionic gonadotropin assays, and ultrasonography in medical abortion practice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug. 183(2 Suppl):S34-43. [Medline].

  149. Paul ME, Mitchell CM, Rogers AJ, Fox MC, Lackie EG. Early surgical abortion: efficacy and safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Aug. 187(2):407-11. [Medline].

  150. Penfield AJ. Gynecologic Surgery Under Local Anesthesia. Baltimore, Md: Urban & Schwarzenburg; 1986. 65-94.

  151. Perry KG Jr, Rinehart BK, Terrone DA, Martin RW, May WL, Roberts WE. Second-trimester uterine evacuation: A comparison of intra-amniotic (15S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha and intravaginal misoprostol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Nov. 181(5 Pt 1):1057-61. [Medline].

  152. Pope LM, Adler NE, Tschann JM. Postabortion psychological adjustment: are minors at increased risk?. J Adolesc Health. 2001 Jul. 29(1):2-11. [Medline].

  153. Reeves MF, Lohr PA, Harwood BJ, Creinin MD. Ultrasonographic endometrial thickness after medical and surgical management of early pregnancy failure. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan. 111(1):106-12. [Medline].

  154. Rosenblatt RA, Robinson KB, Larson EH, Dobie SA. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion and other reproductive health services. Fam Med. 1999 Mar. 31(3):195-9. [Medline].

  155. Sandstrom O, Brooks L, Schantz A, Grinsted J, Grinsted L, Jacobsen JD. Interruption of early pregnancy with mifepristone in combination with gemeprost. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999 Oct. 78(9):806-9. [Medline].

  156. Sawaya GF, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Grimes DA. Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 May. 87(5 Pt 2):884-90. [Medline].

  157. Schaff EA, Fielding SL. A comparison of the Abortion Rights Mobilization and Population Council trials. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):137-40. [Medline].

  158. Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Eisinger SH, Stadalius LS, Fuller L. Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days. Contraception. 2000 Jan. 61(1):41-6. [Medline].

  159. Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Westhoff C, et al. Vaginal misoprostol administered 1, 2, or 3 days after mifepristone for early medical abortion: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2000 Oct 18. 284(15):1948-53. [Medline].

  160. Schüler L, Pastuszak A, Sanseverino TV, et al. Pregnancy outcome after exposure to misoprostol in Brazil: a prospective, controlled study. Reprod Toxicol. 1999 Mar-Apr. 13(2):147-51. [Medline].

  161. Selam B, Lembet A, Stone J, Lapinski R, Berkowitz RL. Pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in multifetal pregnancies reduced to twins compared with nonreduced twin pregnancies. Am J Perinatol. 1999. 16(2):65-71. [Medline].

  162. Selam B, Torok O, Lembet A, Stone J, Lapinski R, Berkowitz RL. Genetic amniocentesis after multifetal pregnancy reduction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jan. 180(1 Pt 1):226-30. [Medline].

  163. Singh K, Ratnam SS. The influence of abortion legislation on maternal mortality. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998 Dec. 63 Suppl 1:S123-9.

  164. Sorosky JI, Scott-Conner CE. Breast disease complicating pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1998 Jun. 25(2):353-63. [Medline].

  165. Stephen JA, Timor-Tritsch IE, Lerner JP, Monteagudo A, Alonso CM. Amniocentesis after multifetal pregnancy reduction: is it safe?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Apr. 182(4):962-5. [Medline].

  166. Stotland NL. The myth of the abortion trauma syndrome. JAMA. 1992 Oct 21. 268(15):2078-9. [Medline].

  167. Strauss LT, Herndon J, Chang J, Parker WY, Levy DA, Bowens SB. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2001. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2004 Nov 26. 53(9):1-32. [Medline].

  168. Trussell J, Ellertson C. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion. Contraception. 1999 Sep. 60(3):119-35. [Medline].

  169. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC. Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003.

  170. Ventura SJ, Mosher WD, Curtin SC, Abma JC, Henshaw S. Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: estimates for the United States, 1976-96. Vital Health Stat 21. 2000 Jan. (56):1-47. [Medline].

  171. Vintzileos AM, Ananth CV, Smulian JC, Beazoglou T, Knuppel RA. Routine second-trimester ultrasonography in the United States: a cost-benefit analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Mar. 182(3):655-60. [Medline].

  172. Westfall JM, Sophocles A, Burggraf H, Ellis S. Manual vacuum aspiration for first-trimester abortion. Arch Fam Med. 1998 Nov-Dec. 7(6):559-62. [Medline].

  173. Wiebe E, Guilbert E, Jacot F, Shannon C, Winikoff B. A fatal case of Clostridium sordellii septic shock syndrome associated with medical abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov. 104(5 Pt 2):1142-4. [Medline].

  174. Wiebe ER. Comparing abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol to methotrexate alone. Contraception. 1999 Jan. 59(1):7-10. [Medline].

  175. Wiebe ER. Tamoxifen compared to methotrexate when used with misoprostol for abortion. Contraception. 1999 Apr. 59(4):265-70. [Medline].

  176. World Health Organization. Comparison of two doses of mifepristone in combination with misoprostol for early medical abortion: a randomised trial. World Health Organisation Task Force on Post-ovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation. BJOG. 2000 Apr. 107(4):524-30. [Medline].

  177. Wu S. Medical abortion in China. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000. 55(3 Suppl):197-9, 204. [Medline].

  178. Borgatta L, Kapp N, Society of Family Planning. Clinical guidelines. Labor induction abortion in the second trimester. Contraception. 2011 Jul. 84 (1):4-18. [Medline].

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.