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Menorrhagia Workup

  • Author: Julia A Shaw, MD, MBA, FACOG; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
 
Updated: Nov 03, 2015
 

Laboratory Studies

CBC count

The CBC count may be used as a baseline for hemoglobin and hematocrit or to rule out anemia. Use the platelet count in conjunction with a peripheral smear if a coagulation defect is suspected.

Iron studies

Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and total iron are used to assess iron stores.

Coagulation factors

These studies are used to rule out von Willebrand disease; ITP; and factor II, V, VII, or IX deficiency. These tests should be ordered sparingly because they are expensive tests for rare disorders (usually in the adolescent age group).[24]

Human chorionic gonadotropin

Pregnancy remains the most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in patients of reproductive age. Bleeding usually denotes threatened abortion, incomplete abortion, or ectopic pregnancy.

Thyroid function tests and prolactin level

These tests can rule out hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. All of these conditions cause ovarian dysfunction leading to possible menorrhagia.

Liver function and/or renal function tests

Order liver function tests (LFTs) when liver disease is suspected, such as in persons with alcoholism or hepatitis.

BUN and creatinine tests assess renal function.

Dysfunction of either organ can alter coagulation factors and/or the metabolism of hormones.

Hormone assays

LH, FSH, and androgen levels help diagnose patients with suspected PCOS.

Adrenal function tests (eg, cortisol, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone [17-OHP]) delineate hyperandrogenism in women with suspected adrenal tumors. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is diagnosed primarily by testing 17-OHP.

Other tests

Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test results for cervical cytology should be current.

Cervical specimens should be obtained if the patient is at risk for an infection.

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Imaging Studies

Small, focal, irregular, or eccentrically located endometrial lesions may be missed by an in-office endometrial biopsy (EMB). The findings yielded from pelvic examinations may be limited if patients are obese. These limitations can lead to further imaging studies to inspect the uterus, endometrium, and/or adnexa.

Pelvic ultrasound is the best noninvasive imaging study to assess uterine shape, size, and contour; endometrial thickness; and adnexal areas.[25]

Sonohysterography (saline-infusion sonography): Fluid infused into the endometrial cavity enhances intrauterine evaluation. One advantage is the ability to differentiate polyps from submucous leiomyomas (ie, fibroids).

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Procedures

Because routine EMB and conventional imaging studies may miss small or laterally displaced lesions, superior methods of assessment must be used in high-risk patients. In addition, performing an in-office biopsy or imaging studies may be limited by patient problems such as obesity or cervical stenosis.

Hysteroscopy

This can be done in the office but may require anesthesia if the patient has a low pain tolerance or adequate visualization is not obtainable.

This technique is used to directly visualize the endometrial cavity by close contact. A biopsy sample should be taken, regardless of the endometrial appearance. The histologic diagnosis is missed in less than 2% of patients who undergo hysteroscopy with directed biopsy.[26]

Endometrial biopsy

This procedure is used in women who are at risk for endometrial carcinoma, polyps, or hyperplasia.

High-risk patients who should be biopsied include those with hypertension, diabetes, chronic anovulation (eg, PCOS), obesity, atypical glandular cells (AGUS) on Pap smear, new-onset menorrhagia, and those older than 70 years or any woman older than 35 years with new-onset irregular bleeding (especially if nulliparous).

EMB findings are used to assess the stage and proliferation of the endometrial stroma and glands. Many studies have been done to compare the results of EMB and dilatation and curettage (D&C). Both tests are accepted as equal in value and are approximately 98% accurate.[26]

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Histologic Findings

Understanding EMB results is essential for any physician treating menorrhagia.

If no tissue is returned after an EMB is performed, most likely the endometrium is atrophic and requires estrogen.

Simple proliferative endometrium is normal and does not require treatment.

Endometrial hyperplasia (except atypical adenomatous) requires progesterone on timed 12-day regimens outlined in the Treatment. Endometrial hyperplasia with atypia (especially atypical adenomatous hyperplasia) generally is considered equivalent to an intraepithelial malignancy, and hysterectomy usually is advised.

Any biopsy that reveals endometrial carcinoma should prompt immediate referral to a gynecologic oncologist for treatment outlined by current oncology protocols associated with the grade and stage of the cancer.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Julia A Shaw, MD, MBA, FACOG Assistant Professor and Residency Program Director, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale School of Medicine; Medical Director, Yale-New Haven Hospital Women's Center

Julia A Shaw, MD, MBA, FACOG is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Association for Physician Leadership, Connecticut State Medical Society, AAGL, North American Menopause Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Howard A Shaw, MD, MBA Clinical Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine; Medical Director, Department of Women's and Children's Services, Yale-New Haven Hospital, Saint Raphael Campus

Howard A Shaw, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Central Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Connecticut State Medical Society, American Urogynecologic Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives, International Urogynaecology Association, American College of Forensic Examiners Institute, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Association for Physician Leadership, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

A David Barnes, MD, MPH, PhD, FACOG Consulting Staff, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mammoth Hospital (Mammoth Lakes, CA), Pioneer Valley Hospital (Salt Lake City, UT), Warren General Hospital (Warren, PA), and Mountain West Hospital (Tooele, UT)

A David Barnes, MD, MPH, PhD, FACOG is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Forensic Examiners Institute, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, American Medical Association, Utah Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Michel E Rivlin, MD Former Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Mississippi School of Medicine

Michel E Rivlin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Medical Association, Mississippi State Medical Association, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Thomas Michael Price, MD Associate Professor, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Director of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Fellowship Program, Duke University Medical Center

Thomas Michael Price, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Phi Beta Kappa, Society for Reproductive Investigation, Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Disclosure: Received research grant from: Insigtec Inc<br/>Received consulting fee from Clinical Advisors Group for consulting; Received consulting fee from MEDA Corp Consulting for consulting; Received consulting fee from Gerson Lehrman Group Advisor for consulting; Received honoraria from ABOG for board membership.

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Acute menorrhagia requires prompt medical intervention. This is bleeding that will compromise an untreated patient.
Successful treatment of chronic menorrhagia is highly dependent on a thorough understanding of the exact etiology. For instance, acute bleeding postpartum does not respond to progesterone therapy, while anovulatory bleeding worsens with high-dose estrogen.
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Flow chart continued from the previous 2 images.
 
 
 
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