Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Kaposi Sarcoma Follow-up

  • Author: Lewis J Rose, MD; Chief Editor: Jules E Harris, MD, FACP, FRCPC  more...
Updated: Apr 16, 2015

Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

Emerging investigational therapies for Kaposi sarcoma (Kaposi's sarcoma, KS) include the following:

  • Signal transduction inhibitors
  • Anti–HHV-8 agents
  • Cytokine inhibitors
  • Antiangiogenesis agents: Vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, such as, SU-5416 (a recent trial using an intranasal VEGF inhibitor [IM862] reported an overall response rate of 36%, with an acceptable toxicity profile); TNP-470; thalidomide


Cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma lesions may be cosmetically disfiguring and often generate significant psychologic distress for individuals infected with AIDS.



Patients with pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma lesions are often symptomatic and may present emergently with respiratory failure.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Lewis J Rose, MD Clinical Associate Professor of Medical Oncology, Division of Regional Cancer Care, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital; Consulting Staff, LRCRZ Associates

Lewis J Rose, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society of Hematology, Pennsylvania Medical Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Philadelphia County Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Joseph A Sparano, MD, MD 

Joseph A Sparano, MD, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Research, American College of Physicians, American Society of Hematology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Jules E Harris, MD, FACP, FRCPC Clinical Professor of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Cancer Center

Jules E Harris, MD, FACP, FRCPC is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society of Hematology, Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research, American Society of Clinical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Ari D Fishman, MD Fellow, Department of Medical Oncology, Albert Einstein Comprehensive Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Ari D Fishman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, and American Society of Hematology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Northfelt DW, Dezube BJ, Thommes JA, et al. Pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin versus doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vincristine in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results of a randomized phase III clinical trial. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Jul. 16(7):2445-51. [Medline].

  2. Stewart S, Jablonowski H, Goebel FD, et al. Randomized comparative trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus bleomycin and vincristine in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. International Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Feb. 16(2):683-91. [Medline].

  3. Gill PS, Wernz J, Scadden DT, et al. Randomized phase III trial of liposomal daunorubicin versus doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vincristine in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Aug. 14(8):2353-64. [Medline].

  4. DeVita V. AIDS-related malignancies. DeVita V, Vincent T Jr, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins; 2008. Vol 8: 2404-2407.

  5. Renwick N, Halaby T, Weverling GJ, et al. Seroconversion for human herpesvirus 8 during HIV infection is highly predictive of Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS. 1998 Dec 24. 12(18):2481-8. [Medline].

  6. Jacobson LP, Jenkins FJ, Springer G, et al. Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human herpesvirus type 8 infections on the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jun. 181(6):1940-9. [Medline].

  7. Escalon MP and Hagemeister FB. AIDS-Related Malignancies. Kantarjian HM, Wolff Ra, and Koller CA. MD Anderson Manual of Medical Oncology. McGraw-Hill; 2006. 903-910. [Full Text].

  8. Nawar E, Mbulaiteye SM, Gallant JE, Wohl DA, Ardini M, Hendershot T, et al. Risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma among HHV-8 seropositive homosexual men with AIDS. Int J Cancer. 2005 Jun 10. 115(2):296-300. [Medline].

  9. Penn I. Cancer in the immunosuppressed organ recipient. Transplant Proc. 1991 Apr. 23(2):1771-2. [Medline].

  10. Penn I. Tumors after renal and cardiac transplantation. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1993 Apr. 7(2):431-45. [Medline].

  11. Antman K, Chang Y. Kaposi's sarcoma. N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 6. 342(14):1027-38. [Medline].

  12. Franceschi S, Geddes M. Epidemiology of classic Kaposi's sarcoma, with special reference to mediterranean population. Tumori. 1995 Sep-Oct. 81(5):308-14. [Medline].

  13. Sarid R, Olsen SJ, Moore PS. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: epidemiology, virology, and molecular biology. Adv Virus Res. 1999. 52:139-232. [Medline].

  14. Touloumi G, Hatzakis A, Potouridou I, et al. The role of immunosuppression and immune-activation in classic Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Cancer. 1999 Sep 9. 82(6):817-21. [Medline].

  15. Stallone G, Schena A, Infante B, et al. Sirolimus for Kaposi's sarcoma in renal-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 31. 352(13):1317-23. [Medline].

  16. Gutiérrez-Dalmau A, Campistol JM. The role of proliferation signal inhibitors in post-transplant malignancies. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 May. 22 Suppl 1:i11-6. [Medline].

  17. Campistol JM, Eris J, Oberbauer R, et al. Sirolimus therapy after early cyclosporine withdrawal reduces the risk for cancer in adult renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Feb. 17(2):581-9. [Medline].

  18. Kaloterakis A, Papasteriades C, Filiotou A, et al. HLA in familial and nonfamilial Mediterranean Kaposi's sarcoma in Greece. Tissue Antigens. 1995 Feb. 45(2):117-9. [Medline].

  19. Calabrò ML, Sheldon J, Favero A, et al. Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 in several regions of Italy. J Hum Virol. 1998 Mar-Apr. 1(3):207-13. [Medline].

  20. Iscovich J, Boffetta P, Winkelmann R, Brennan P. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma as a second primary neoplasm. Int J Cancer. 1999 Jan 18. 80(2):178-82. [Medline].

  21. Fiorelli V, Gendelman R, Sirianni MC, et al. gamma-Interferon produced by CD8+ T cells infiltrating Kaposi's sarcoma induces spindle cells with angiogenic phenotype and synergy with human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein: an immune response to human herpesvirus-8 infection?. Blood. 1998 Feb 1. 91(3):956-67. [Medline].

  22. Monini P, Colombini S, Sturzl M, et al. Reactivation and persistence of human herpesvirus-8 infection in B cells and monocytes by Th-1 cytokines increased in Kaposi's sarcoma. Blood. 1999 Jun 15. 93(12):4044-58. [Medline].

  23. Goedert JJ, Vitale F, Lauria C, et al. Risk factors for classical Kaposi's sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Nov 20. 94(22):1712-8. [Medline].

  24. de-Thé G, Bestetti G, van Beveren M, et al. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection before the acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome-related epidemic of Kaposi's sarcoma in East Africa. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Nov 3. 91(21):1888-9. [Medline].

  25. Parkin DM FJ, Hamdi-Cherif M, Sitas F, et al. Kaposi's Sarcoma. Cancer in Africa: Epidemiology and Preventiion. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer: IARC Scientific Publiciations; 2003. 153: 286-294.

  26. Ziegler J, Newton R, Bourboulia D, et al. Risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma: a case-control study of HIV-seronegative people in Uganda. Int J Cancer. 2003 Jan 10. 103(2):233-40. [Medline].

  27. Osman M, Kubo T, Gill J, Neipel F, Becker M, Smith G, et al. Identification of human herpesvirus 8-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses. J Virol. 1999 Jul. 73(7):6136-40. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  28. Sirianni MC, Vincenzi L, Topino S, et al. NK cell activity controls human herpesvirus 8 latent infection and is restored upon highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients with regressing Kaposi's sarcoma. Eur J Immunol. 2002 Oct. 32(10):2711-20. [Medline].

  29. Friedman-Kien AE, Saltzman BR, Cao YZ, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-negative homosexual men. Lancet. 1990 Jan 20. 335(8682):168-9. [Medline].

  30. Uccini S, Ruco LP, Monardo F, Stoppacciaro A, et al. Co-expression of endothelial cell and macrophage antigens in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. J Pathol. 1994 May. 173(1):23-31. [Medline].

  31. Lennette ET, Blackbourn DJ, Levy JA. Antibodies to human herpesvirus type 8 in the general population and in Kaposi's sarcoma patients. Lancet. 1996 Sep 28. 348(9031):858-61. [Medline].

  32. Spira TJ, Lam L, Dollard SC, et al. Comparison of serologic assays and PCR for diagnosis of human herpes virus 8 infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jun. 38(6):2174-80. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  33. Nascimento, MC, Sumita, LM, Souza, VU, et al. Seroprevalence of Kaposi Sarcoma –associated herpes virus and other serologic markers in the Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009. 15:664-667.

  34. Wang X, He B, Zhang Z, et al. Human herpesvirus-8 in northwestern China: epidemiology and characterization among blood donors. Virol J. 2010 Mar 17. 7:62. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  35. Duprez R, Lacoste V, Brière J, Couppié P, Frances C, Sainte-Marie D, et al. Evidence for a multiclonal origin of multicentric advanced lesions of Kaposi sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 18. 99(14):1086-94. [Medline].

  36. Montaner S, Sodhi A, Ramsdell AK, et al. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus G protein-coupled receptor as a therapeutic target for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 1. 66(1):168-74. [Medline].

  37. Grisotto MG, Garin A, Martin AP, Jensen KK, Chan P, Sealfon SC, et al. The human herpesvirus 8 chemokine receptor vGPCR triggers autonomous proliferation of endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 2006 May. 116(5):1264-73. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  38. Paulose-Murphy M, Ha NK, Xiang C, Chen Y, Gillim L, Yarchoan R, et al. Transcription program of human herpesvirus 8 (kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus). J Virol. 2001 May. 75(10):4843-53. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  39. Biggar, RJ, Chatuvedi, AK, Goedert, JJ, et al. AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007. 99:969-972.

  40. Brown EE, Whitby D, Vitale F, et al. Virologic, hematologic, and immunologic risk factors for classic Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer. 2006 Nov 1. 107(9):2282-90. [Medline].

  41. Stratigos AJ, Malanos D, Touloumi G, et al. Association of clinical progression in classic Kaposi's sarcoma with reduction of peripheral B lymphocytes and partial increase in serum immune activation markers. Arch Dermatol. 2005 Nov. 141(11):1421-6. [Medline].

  42. Kimball LE, Casper C, Koelle DM, Morrow R, Corey L, Vieira J. Reduced levels of neutralizing antibodies to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in persons with a history of Kaposi sarcoma. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 1. 189(11):2016-22. [Medline].

  43. Campbell TB, Borok M, Ndemera B, et al. Lack of evidence for frequent heterosexual transmission of human herpesvirus 8 in Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 1. 48(11):1601-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  44. Hladik W, Dollard SC, Mermin J, et al. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by blood transfusion. N Engl J Med. 2006 Sep 28. 355(13):1331-8. [Medline].

  45. Frances C, Marcelin AG, Legendre Ch, et al. The impact of preexisting or acquired Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus infection in kidney transplant recipients on morbidity and survival. Am J Transplant. 2009 Nov. 9(11):2580-6. [Medline].

  46. Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, et al. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science. 1994 Dec 16. 266(5192):1865-9. [Medline].

  47. SEER Cancer Statistics Review authored by Reis LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary, CL et al. 2003;

  48. Scadden D. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Holland JF, Frei E. Cancer Medicine. 6. Hamilton, London: BC Decker Inc; 2003. 2259-2275.

  49. Eltom MA, Jemal A, Mbulaiteye SM, et al. Trends in Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence in the United States from 1973 through 1998. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Aug 21. 94(16):1204-10. [Medline].

  50. Beral V, Peterman TA, Berkelman RL, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection?. Lancet. 1990 Jan 20. 335(8682):123-8. [Medline].

  51. Cote TR, Howe HL, Anderson SP, et al. A systemic consideration of the neoplastic spectrum of AIDS: registry linkage in Illinois. AIDS. 1991. 5(1):49-53.

  52. Stebbing J, Sanitt A, Nelson M, et al. A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet. 2006 May 6. 367(9521):1495-502. [Medline].

  53. Maurer T, Ponte M, Leslie K. HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 27. 357(13):1352-3. [Medline].

  54. Lee FC, Mitsuyasu RT. Chemotherapy of AIDS--related Kaposi's sarcoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1996 Oct. 10(5):1051-68. [Medline].

  55. Hussein MA, Remzi B, DiFabrizio L, et al. Evaluation of Sequential Thallium and Gallium Scans of the Chest in AIDs Patients. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. October, 1996. 37, 10:1662-1667.

  56. About the 3 by 5 Initiative. World Health Organization. WHO website. Available at Accessed: September 6, 2004.

  57. Levine AM, Tulpule A. Clinical aspects and management of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Eur J Cancer. 2001 Jul. 37(10):1288-95. [Medline].

  58. Tulpule A, Groopman J, Saville MW, et al. Multicenter trial of low-dose paclitaxel in patients with advanced AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer. 2002 Jul 1. 95(1):147-54. [Medline].

  59. Krown SE. Highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: implications for the design of therapeutic trials in patients with advanced, symptomatic Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Feb 1. 22(3):399-402. [Medline].

  60. Chachoua A, Krigel R, Lafleur F, et al. Prognostic factors and staging classification of patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1989 Jun. 7(6):774-80. [Medline].

  61. Cattelan AM, Calabro ML, De Rossi A, et al. Long-term clinical outcome of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Oncol. 2005 Sep. 27(3):779-85. [Medline].

  62. Bower M, Nelson M, Young AM, et al. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 1. 23(22):5224-8. [Medline].

  63. Sgadari C, Barillari G, Toschi E, et al. HIV protease inhibitors are potent anti-angiogenic molecules and promote regression of Kaposi sarcoma. Nat Med. 2002 Mar. 8(3):225-32. [Medline].

  64. Cooper A. Treating HIV-infected children: the surgeon's role. Bull Am Coll Surg. 1991 Jun. 76(6):13-7, 43. [Medline].

  65. Nobler MP, Leddy ME, Huh SH. The impact of palliative irradiation on the management of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Clin Oncol. 1987 Jan. 5(1):107-12. [Medline].

  66. Mosam A, Shaik F, Uldrick T, Esterhuizen T, Friedlnad G, Scadden D, et al. The KAART Trial: A randomized controlled trial of HAART compared to the combination of HAART and chemotherapy in treatment naïve patients with HIV-associated Kaposi’s Sarcoma (HIV-KS) in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) South Africa NCT 00380770 in: 17th Conference on Retorviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco, CA . 2010.

  67. Real FX, Oettgen HF, Krown SE. Kaposi's sarcoma and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: treatment with high and low doses of recombinant leukocyte A interferon. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Apr. 4(4):544-51. [Medline].

  68. Groopman JE, Gottlieb MS, Goodman J, et al. Recombinant alpha-2 interferon therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1984 May. 100(5):671-6. [Medline].

  69. Krown SE, Gold JW, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Interferon-alpha with zidovudine: safety, tolerance, and clinical and virologic effects in patients with Kaposi sarcoma associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med. 1990 Jun 1. 112(11):812-21. [Medline].

  70. Little RF, Pluda JM, Wyvill KM, Rodriguez-Chavez IR, Tosato G, Catanzaro AT, et al. Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood. 2006 Jun 15. 107(12):4650-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  71. Saville MW, Lietzau J, Pluda JM, et al. Treatment of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with paclitaxel. Lancet. 1995 Jul 1. 346(8966):26-8. [Medline].

  72. Gill PS, Tulpule A, Espina BM, et al. Paclitaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jun. 17(6):1876-83. [Medline].

  73. Martin-Carbonero L, Barrios A, Saballs P, Sirera G, Santos J, Palacios R, et al. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus high active antiretroviral therapy verusus Highy active antiretroviral therapy alone in HIV patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma. AIDS. 2004. 18:410-417.

  74. Uldrick TS, Whitby D. Update on KSHV epidemiology, Kaposi Sarcoma pathogenesis, and treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma. Cancer Lett. 2011 Jun 28. 305(2):150-62. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  75. Koon HB, Bubley GJ, Pantanowitz L, et al. Imatinib-induced regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 10. 23(5):982-9. [Medline].

  76. Cianfrocca M, Cooley TP, Lee JY, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor COL-3 in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: a phase I AIDS malignancy consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jan 1. 20(1):153-9. [Medline].

  77. Infectious Agents, Immunologic Factors, Hereditary Neoplastic Syndromes, Soft Tissue Sarcoma. Schottenfeld D and Fraumen J eds. Cancer. Epidemiology and Prevention. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. 522, 523, 552, 553, 561, 562, 960-962, 968.

  78. Centers for disease control. Surveillance for AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses, 1992-1997. MMWR. 1999. 48:SS2:1-22.

  79. de Sanjose S, Mbisa G, Perez-Alvarez S, et al. Geographic variation in the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors for transmission. J Infect Dis. 2009 May 15. 199(10):1449-56. [Medline].

  80. Dezube BJ. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma: clinical features, staging, and treatment. Semin Oncol. 2000 Aug. 27(4):424-30. [Medline].

  81. Dezube BJ. Clinical presentation and natural history of AIDS--related Kaposi's sarcoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1996 Oct. 10(5):1023-9. [Medline].

  82. Di Lorenzo G, Konstantinopoulos PA, Pantanowitz L, et al. Management of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet Oncol. 2007 Feb. 8(2):167-76. [Medline].

  83. Evans SR, Krown SE, Testa MA, et al. Phase II evaluation of low-dose oral etoposide for the treatment of relapsed or progressive AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: an AIDS Clinical Trials Group clinical study. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Aug 1. 20(15):3236-41. [Medline].

  84. Gao SJ, Kingsley L, Li M, Zheng W, Parravicini C, Ziegler J, et al. KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat Med. 1996 Aug. 2(8):925-8. [Medline].

  85. Gill PS, Tulpule A, Espina BM, et al. Paclitaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jun. 17(6):1876-83. [Medline].

  86. Iscovich J, Boffetta P, Franceschi S, et al. Classic kaposi sarcoma: epidemiology and risk factors. Cancer. 2000 Feb 1. 88(3):500-17. [Medline].

  87. Krown SE, Lee JY, Dittmer DP. More on HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 31. 358(5):535-6; author reply 536. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  88. Krown SE, Metroka C, Wernz JC. Kaposi's sarcoma in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a proposal for uniform evaluation, response, and staging criteria. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Oncology Committee. J Clin Oncol. 1989 Sep. 7(9):1201-7. [Medline].

  89. Lacombe JM, Boue F, Grabar S, Viget N, Gazaignes S, et al. Risk of Kaposi sarcoma during the first months on combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2013 Feb 20. 27(4):635-643. [Medline].

  90. Mbisa GL, Miley W, Gamache CJ, et al. Detection of antibodies to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus: a new approach using K8.1 ELISA and a newly developed recombinant LANA ELISA. J Immunol Methods. 2010 Apr 30. 356(1-2):39-46. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  91. AIDS-Related Malignancies-Kaposi's Sarcoma. Kantarjian HM, Wolff RA, and Koller CA. MD Anderson Manual of Medical Oncology. McGraw Hill; 2006. 903-910/34.

  92. Simpson GR, Schulz TF, Whitby D, et al. Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection measured by antibodies to recombinant capsid protein and latent immunofluorescence antigen. Lancet. 1996 Oct 26. 348(9035):1133-8. [Medline].

  93. Stebbing J, Gazzard B, Newsom-Davis T, et al. Nadir B cell counts are significantly correlated with the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 20. 108(3):473-4. [Medline].

  94. Tulpule A, Scadden DT, Espina BM, et al. Results of a randomized study of IM862 nasal solution in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Feb. 18(4):716-23. [Medline].

  95. Tulpule A, Scadden DT, Espina BM, et al. Results of a randomized study of IM862 nasal solution in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Feb. 18(4):716-23. [Medline].

  96. Vogel J, Hinrichs SH, Reynolds RK, Luciw PA, Jay G. The HIV tat gene induces dermal lesions resembling Kaposi's sarcoma in transgenic mice. Nature. 1988 Oct 13. 335(6191):606-11. [Medline].

  97. Von Roenn J. Kaposi's sarcoma evaluation and treatment. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Educational book. 1998. 76-85.

  98. Yarchoan R, Broder S. Preliminary results on the use of dideoxynuclosides in the therapy of AIDS. Chanock, RM, Lerner Ra, Brown F, Ginsberg H. Vaccines 87: modern approaches to new vaccines: prevention of AIKDs and other viral, bacterial, and parasitic disease. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Colc Spring Harbor Press; 1987.

Endoscopic view of a Kaposi sarcoma lesion situated in the gastric antrum.
Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Large violaceous truncal nodules with typical linear and symmetric distribution pattern.
Kaposi sarcoma (KS), facial. Confluent, violaceous nodules involving the chest wall; extensive facial involvement with accompanied edema.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.