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Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Anastasios K Konstantakos, MD; Chief Editor: Jules E Harris, MD, FACP, FRCPC  more...
 
Updated: Apr 16, 2015
 

History

Patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) typically present with a rapidly growing neck mass. Patients with metastases may also note bone pain, weakness, and cough. Neurologic deficits may be observed with brain metastases. The rapidly growing neck mass may produce the following symptoms:

  • Dysphagia
  • Cough
  • Neck pain
  • Dyspnea
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Physical

Physical examination typically reveals a dominant neck mass. More than 40% of affected patients have lymph node enlargement, indicating local metastases. Pleural effusions may lead to decreased breath sounds on auscultation. With metastases, the physician may note bone pain and neurologic deficits.

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Causes

Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid (ATC) is believed to occur from a terminal dedifferentiation of previously undetected long-standing thyroid carcinoma (eg, papillary, follicular). ATC has a genetic association with oncogenes C-myc, H-ras, and Nm23. Mutations in BRAF, RAS, catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, PIK3CA, TP53, AXIN1, PTEN, and APC genes have been found in ATC, and chromosomal abnormalities are common.[2]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Anastasios K Konstantakos, MD Clinical Associate Surgeon, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Billings Clinic

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Jules E Harris, MD, FACP, FRCPC Clinical Professor of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Cancer Center

Jules E Harris, MD, FACP, FRCPC is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society of Hematology, Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research, American Society of Clinical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Lodovico Balducci, MD Professor, Oncology Fellowship Director, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Adult Oncology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine

Lodovico Balducci, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association for Cancer Research, American College of Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, American Society of Hematology, New York Academy of Sciences, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, International Society for Experimental Hematology, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Society of Breast Disease

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Debra J Graham, MD, is gratefully acknowledged for the contributions made to this topic.

References
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