Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Malingering Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: David Bienenfeld, MD; Chief Editor: Iqbal Ahmed, MBBS, FRCPsych(UK)  more...
Updated: Apr 15, 2015
Contributor Information and Disclosures

David Bienenfeld, MD Professor, Departments of Psychiatry and Geriatric Medicine, Wright State University, Boonshoft School of Medicine

David Bienenfeld, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, Association for Academic Psychiatry

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Iqbal Ahmed, MBBS, FRCPsych(UK) Faculty, Department of Psychiatry, Tripler Army Medical Center; Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Clinical Professor of Geriatric Medicine, University of Hawaii, John A Burns School of Medicine

Iqbal Ahmed, MBBS, FRCPsych(UK) is a member of the following medical societies: Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, American Neuropsychiatric Association, American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Royal College of Psychiatrists, American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, American Psychiatric Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Barry I Liskow, MD Professor of Psychiatry, Vice Chairman, Psychiatry Department, Director, Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic, The University of Kansas Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, (DSM-5). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 2013. 726.

  2. Chafetz M, Underhill J. Estimated costs of malingered disability. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2013 Nov. 28(7):633-9. [Medline].

  3. Faust D. The detection of deception. Neurol Clin. 1995 May. 13(2):255-65. [Medline].

  4. Resnick PJ. Defrocking the fraud: the detection of malingering. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1993. 30(2):93-101. [Medline].

  5. Purcell TB. The somatic patient. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1991 Feb. 9(1):137-59. [Medline].

  6. Samuel RZ, Mittenberg W. Determination of Malingering in Disability Evaluations. Primary Psychiatry. 2005. 12(12):60-68. [Full Text].

  7. Donaghy M. Symptoms and the perception of disease. Clin Med. 2004 Nov-Dec. 4(6):541-4. [Medline].

  8. Malone RD, Lange CL. A clinical approach to the malingering patient. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2007 Spring. 35(1):13-21. [Medline].

  9. Anderson JM. Malingering: A constant challenge in disability arenas. J Controversial Med Claims. May 2008. 15(2):1-9.

  10. Hegedish O, Kivilis N, Hoofien D. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2015 Feb 4. 1-7. [Medline].

  11. Chafetz MD. The A-Test: a symptom validity indicator embedded within a mental status examination for Social Security Disability. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2012. 19(2):121-6. [Medline].

  12. Udell ET. Malingering behavior in private medical practice. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1994 Jan. 11(1):65-72. [Medline].

  13. Voiss DV. Occupational injury. Fact, fantasy, or fraud?. Neurol Clin. 1995 May. 13(2):431-46. [Medline].

  14. McDermott BE, Feldman MD. Malingering in the medical setting. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2007 Dec. 30(4):645-62. [Medline].

  15. LoPiccolo CJ, Goodkin K, Baldewicz TT. Current issues in the diagnosis and management of malingering. Ann Med. 1999 Jun. 31(3):166-74. [Medline].

  16. Ziegler SJ. Pain, patients, and prosecution: who is deceiving whom?. Pain Med. 2007 Jul-Aug. 8(5):445-6; author reply 447-8. [Medline].

Diagnostic algorithm for suspicious symptoms.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.