Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Follow-up

  • Author: Tej K Naik, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
 
Updated: Dec 31, 2015
 

Further Outpatient Care

No specific recommendations for outpatient follow up are needed for persons who have been treated for neurogenic pulmonary edema. Patients who recover should probably follow up with a physician in an outpatient setting as clinically indicated; however, no specific guidelines are available regarding the appropriate time interval following discharge from the hospital. In general, patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema do not present as outpatients and should not be treated in an outpatient setting.

Next

Further Inpatient Care

Neurological insults severe enough to cause neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) always warrant admission to hospital. Most patients require close cardiac monitoring, requiring initial admission to a monitored bed. A telemetry unit or step-down unit bed may suffice for less severe cases. Intensive care admission may be required if patients develop increasingly severe hypoxemia or respiratory distress, or if invasive monitoring is required.

Previous
Next

Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

No specific recommendations for outpatient medications are needed for neurogenic pulmonary edema. See Medical Care.

Previous
Next

Transfer

Patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema generally have multiple comorbidities that dictate the setting in which they are receiving care. Transfer between levels of acute care (ie, ICU to transitional care units, and subsequently to general medical/surgical ward) is influenced by a variety of factors. The most important of these is likely the underlying neurological insult that led to the development of pulmonary edema. Once this is managed and stabilized, further transitions between level of care are dictated by clinical circumstances. These include an ongoing need for mechanical ventilation, hemodynamic parameters, and the need for regular neurologic monitoring.

Previous
Next

Deterrence/Prevention

Prevention is primarily aimed at interventions that help avoid or relieve the neurological insults that subsequently lead to pulmonary edema. Current understanding is limited as to which patients are likely to develop pulmonary edema as a result of neurological injury. Given this lack of understanding, predicting who will develop pulmonary edema and determining what measures can then be undertaken to prevent its occurrence are difficult.

Previous
Next

Complications

Complications include but are not limited to the following:

  • Prolonged hypoxic respiratory failure
  • Hemodynamic instability
  • Nosocomial infections (ie, related to prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospitalization)
  • Death
Previous
Next

Prognosis

Neurogenic pulmonary edema usually is generally well tolerated by the patient, although some patients require ventilatory support. The neurogenic pulmonary edema usually resolves within 48-72 hours. Prognosis is determined more by the course of the underlying neurological problem than by the neurogenic pulmonary edema, unless significant respiratory complications develop.

Previous
Next

Patient Education

For excellent patient education resources, visit eMedicineHealth's Brain and Nervous System Center. Also, see eMedicineHealth's patient education article Stroke.

Previous
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Tej K Naik, MD Partner, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Fontana, California and Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Ontario, CA

Tej K Naik, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director, Medical Intensive Care Unit, Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System

Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, California Thoracic Society, American Association for Respiratory Care

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Harold L Manning, MD Professor, Departments of Medicine, Anesthesiology and Physiology, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School

Harold L Manning, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Geri and Richard Brawerman Chair in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Professor and Executive Vice Chairman, Department of Medicine, Medical Director, Women's Guild Lung Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Medical Research, American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Cory Franklin, MD Professor, Department of Medicine, Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science; Director, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Cook County Hospital

Cory Franklin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: New York Academy of Sciences, Society of Critical Care Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Sat Sharma, MD, FRCPC Professor and Head, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba; Site Director, Respiratory Medicine, St Boniface General Hospital

Sat Sharma, MD, FRCPC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Thoracic Society, Canadian Medical Association, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal Society of Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine, and World Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Sedy J, Zicha J, Kunes J, Jendelova P, Sykova E. Mechanisms of neurogenic pulmonary edema development. Physiol Res. 2008. 57(4):499-506. [Medline].

  2. Hoff JT, Nishimura M, Garcia-Uria J, Miranda S. Experimental neurogenic pulmonary edema. Part 1: The role of systemic hypertension. J Neurosurg. 1981 May. 54(5):627-31. [Medline].

  3. Maron MB, Dawson CA. Pulmonary venoconstriction caused by elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the dog. J Appl Physiol. 1980 Jul. 49(1):73-8. [Medline].

  4. Baumann A, Audibert G, McDonnell J, Mertes PM. Neurogenic pulmonary edema. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007 Apr. 51(4):447-55. [Medline].

  5. Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Ueyama-Mutoh T, Taki Y, Ishikawa T. Transpulmonary Thermodilution-Based Management of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Am J Med Sci. 2015 Nov. 350 (5):415-9. [Medline].

  6. Chen WL, Huang CH, Chen JH, Tai HC, Chang SH, Wang YC. Electrocardiographic abnormalities predict neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Sep 25. [Medline].

  7. Khademi S, Frye MA, Jeckel KM, Schroeder T, Monnet E, Irwin DC, et al. Hypoxia mediated pulmonary edema: potential influence of oxidative stress, sympathetic activation and cerebral blood flow. BMC Physiol. 2015 Oct 9. 15 (1):4. [Medline].

  8. Reuter-Rice K, Duthie S, Hamrick J. Neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with pediatric status epilepticus. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Oct. 27(10):957-8. [Medline].

  9. Muroi C, Keller M, Pangalu A, Fortunati M, Yonekawa Y, Keller E. Neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2008 Jul. 20(3):188-92. [Medline].

  10. Piazza O, Venditto A, Tufano R. Neurogenic pulmonary edema in subarachnoid hemorrage. Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep. 53(3):203-10. [Medline].

  11. Solenski NJ, Haley EC Jr, Kassell NF, et al. Medical complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a report of the multicenter, cooperative aneurysm study. Participants of the Multicenter Cooperative Aneurysm Study. Crit Care Med. 1995 Jun. 23(6):1007-17. [Medline].

  12. Fontes RB, Aguiar PH, Zanetti MV, Andrade F, Mandel M, Teixeira MJ. Acute neurogenic pulmonary edema: case reports and literature review. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2003 Apr. 15(2):144-50. [Medline].

  13. Lee VH, Oh JK, Mulvagh SL, Wijdicks EF. Mechanisms in neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2006. 5(3):243-9. [Medline].

  14. Wartenberg KE, Mayer SA. Medical complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage: new strategies for prevention and management. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2006 Apr. 12(2):78-84. [Medline].

  15. Goncalves V, Silva-Carvalho L, Rocha I. Cerebellar haemorrhage as a cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema - case report. Cerebellum. 2005. 4(4):246-9.

  16. Qin SQ, Sun W, Wang HB, Zhang QL. Neurogenic pulmonary edema in head injuries: analysis of 5 cases. Chin J Traumatol. 2005 Jun. 8(3):172-4, 178. [Medline].

  17. Rochester CL, Mohsenin V. Respiratory complications of stroke. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jun. 23(3):248-60. [Medline].

  18. Brewer RP, Borel CO. Neurogenic pulmonary edema during intracranial endovascular therapy. Neurocrit Care. 2004. 1(4):423-7. [Medline].

  19. Naidech AM, Bassin SL, Garg RK, et al. Cardiac troponin I and acute lung injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2009. 11(2):177-82. [Medline].

  20. Nakamura T, Okuchi K, Matsuyama T, et al. Clinical significance of elevated natriuretic peptide levels and cardiopulmonary parameters after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2009 May. 49(5):185-91; discussion 191-2. [Medline].

  21. Fletcher SJ, Atkinson JD. Use of prone ventilation in neurogenic pulmonary oedema. Br J Anaesth. 2003 Feb. 90(2):238-40. [Medline].

  22. Schraufnagel DE, Thakkar MB. Pulmonary venous sphincter constriction is attenuated by alpha-adrenergic antagonism. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Aug. 148(2):477-82. [Medline].

  23. Knudsen F, Jensen HP, Petersen PL. Neurogenic pulmonary edema: treatment with dobutamine. Neurosurgery. 1991 Aug. 29(2):269-70. [Medline].

  24. [Guideline] Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Palliative care. National Guidelines Clearinghouse. 2008 May.

  25. Jain R, Deveikis J, Thompson BG. Management of patients with stunned myocardium associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004 Jan. 25(1):126-9. [Medline].

  26. Ohlmacher AP. Acute pulmonary edema as a terminal event in certain forms of epilepsy. Am J Med Sci. 1910. 139:417.

  27. Simmons RL, Heisterkamp CA 3rd, Collins JA, Bredenberg CE, Mills DE, Martin AM Jr. Respiratory insufficiency in combat casualties. IV. Hypoxemia during convalescence. Ann Surg. 1969 Jul. 170(1):53-62. [Medline].

  28. Simon RP, Gean-Marton AD, Sander JE. Medullary lesion inducing pulmonary edema: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Ann Neurol. 1991 Nov. 30(5):727-30. [Medline].

  29. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 4. 342(18):1301-8. [Medline].

  30. Tung P, Kopelnik A, Banki N, et al. Predictors of neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Feb. 35(2):548-51. [Medline].

  31. Wray NP, Nicotra MB. Pathogenesis of neurogenic pulmonary edema. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1978 Oct. 118(4):783-6. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
Neurogenic pulmonary edema in a patient with a subdural hematoma.
Progression of neurogenic pulmonary edema in the same patient in the image above, with subdural hematoma (day 2).
Factors leading to the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.