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Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Treatment & Management

  • Author: Tej K Naik, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
 
Updated: Dec 31, 2015
 

Medical Care

Neurologic disorder and neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE)

  • Focus treatment on the underlying neurologic disorder and associated complications.
  • The initial focus should be on control of the underlying neurologic insult, which may include surgical options.
  • Control neurogenic pulmonary edema with supportive and conservative measures.
  • Neurogenic pulmonary edema resolves within 48-72 hours in the majority of affected patients.

General supportive care for neurogenic pulmonary edema

  • Supplemental oxygen is required in most patients to correct hypoxemia.
  • Mechanical ventilation may be necessary, either noninvasive with a face mask or via an endotracheal tube. [21] The goals of mechanical ventilation are to assure adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to prevent iatrogenic lung injury. To avoid excessively high inflation pressures, tidal volumes between 5 and 6 mL/kg or predicted body weight are used.
  • With the use of low inflation volumes, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is added to prevent compression atelectasis. The peak inspiratory (plateau) pressure should be kept below 30-35 cm water, and eucapnia should be maintained to avoid further increases in intracranial pressure.
  • High levels of PEEP may be required to treat severe hypoxemia. Caution is advised, however, because PEEP can inhibit cerebral venous return and increase intracranial hypertension.
  • Diuretic therapy may reduce lung water by decreasing capillary hydrostatic pressure and increasing colloid osmotic pressure, but the strategies to reduce lung water are not uniformly successful. The use of diuretics to minimize or reduce fluid overload seems a more reasonable approach, but adequate cardiac output and cerebral perfusion pressure must be maintained.
  • The goal of management in respiratory failure is to achieve an adequate level of oxygenation in the vital organs. Swan-Ganz catheterization may be helpful in guiding fluid and hemodynamic management, particularly if diuretics are used.
  • To maintain adequate tissue oxygenation, sufficient cardiac output (cardiac index >2.2 L/min/m 2) and hemoglobin (>10 g/L) are required to ensure optimal oxygen delivery. Because cardiac output depends on cardiac filling pressures (central venous pressure and wedge pressure), meticulous monitoring of intravascular volume is mandatory. See the Cardiac Output calculator.

Pharmacological therapy for neurogenic pulmonary edema: Pharmacological agents are not used routinely in the treatment of neurogenic pulmonary edema. Several agents, such as alpha-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenergic blockers, dobutamine, and chlorpromazine, are advocated by some authors, but assessment of their effectiveness is difficult because neurogenic pulmonary edema is usually a self-limited condition that resolves spontaneously.

  • Alpha-adrenergic antagonists (eg, phentolamine) can prevent neurogenic pulmonary edema or hasten its resolution in experimental models. However, no human trials have established the safety and efficacy of these agents. These agents may be used to treat concomitant systemic hypertension, if present, but care must be taken to avoid significant hypotension that can diminish cerebral perfusion. [22]
  • Beta-adrenergic agonists, in theory, are used to counteract the alpha-adrenergic–induced increase in systemic vascular resistance by increased inotropic effect with reflex-mediated decrease in afterload. Some studies have used dobutamine and shown a distinct improvement in myocardial function in patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema. [23] A more recent study looked at patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema who were taking lower doses of dopamine (< 6 mcg/min/kg) and showed this to be a reasonable alternative to dobutamine. Recommendations against using higher doses of dopamine have also been published, given the possible effects on increased afterload.
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Surgical Care

Surgical management is directed at the neurologic insult (eg, intracerebral hemorrhage, subdural hematoma) because neurogenic pulmonary edema has no direct surgical treatment.

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Consultations

Consultations may include the following:

  • Critical care medicine specialist or intensivist for ongoing intensive care
  • Neurosurgeon and/or neurologist for evaluation and management of any underlying precipitating event
  • Interventional radiologist for some specific neurologic vascular issues
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Diet

No specific dietary recommendations are needed for patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema.

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Activity

Patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema usually have limited mobility as a result of their neurologic condition. No specific restrictions on activity are needed, except those required for treatment of the neurologic condition, especially patients undergoing neurologic surgery. Early ambulation and rehabilitation are crucial for recovery.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Tej K Naik, MD Partner, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Fontana, California and Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Ontario, CA

Tej K Naik, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director, Medical Intensive Care Unit, Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System

Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, California Thoracic Society, American Association for Respiratory Care

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Harold L Manning, MD Professor, Departments of Medicine, Anesthesiology and Physiology, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School

Harold L Manning, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Geri and Richard Brawerman Chair in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Professor and Executive Vice Chairman, Department of Medicine, Medical Director, Women's Guild Lung Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Medical Research, American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Cory Franklin, MD Professor, Department of Medicine, Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science; Director, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Cook County Hospital

Cory Franklin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: New York Academy of Sciences, Society of Critical Care Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Sat Sharma, MD, FRCPC Professor and Head, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba; Site Director, Respiratory Medicine, St Boniface General Hospital

Sat Sharma, MD, FRCPC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Thoracic Society, Canadian Medical Association, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal Society of Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine, and World Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Neurogenic pulmonary edema in a patient with a subdural hematoma.
Progression of neurogenic pulmonary edema in the same patient in the image above, with subdural hematoma (day 2).
Factors leading to the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
 
 
 
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