Medial Collateral and Lateral Collateral Ligament Injury Medication
- Author: Adam B Agranoff, MD; Chief Editor: Consuelo T Lorenzo, MD more...
The goal of pharmacotherapy is to reduce morbidity.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
These have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity. Their mechanism of action is not known, but they may inhibit cyclo-oxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. Other mechanisms may exist as well, such as inhibition of leukotriene synthesis, lysosomal enzyme release, lipoxygenase activity, neutrophil aggregation, and various cell-membrane functions.
DOC for patients with mild to moderate pain. Inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing prostaglandin synthesis.
Primarily inhibits COX-2. COX-2 is considered an inducible iso-enzyme; it is induced by pain and inflammatory stimuli. Inhibition of COX-1 may contribute to NSAID GI toxicity. At therapeutic concentrations, COX-1 iso-enzyme is not inhibited; thus, incidence of GI toxicity, such as endoscopic peptic ulcers, bleeding ulcers, perforations, and obstructions, may be decreased when compared with nonselective NSAIDs. Seek lowest dose for each patient.
Neutralizes circulating myelin antibodies through anti-idiotypic antibodies; down-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, including INF-gamma; blocks Fc receptors on macrophages; suppresses inducer T and B cells and augments suppressor T cells; blocks complement cascade; promotes remyelination; may increase CSF IgG (10%).
Has a sulfonamide chain and is primarily dependent on cytochrome P450 enzymes (a hepatic enzyme) for metabolism.
Pain control is essential to quality patient care. Analgesics ensure patient comfort, promote pulmonary toilet, and have sedating properties, which are beneficial for patients who have sustained trauma or injuries.
Inhibits ascending pain pathways by binding to mu-opiate receptors in CNS, thus altering perception of and response to pain. Also inhibits re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.
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