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Brown-Sequard Syndrome Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Carol Vandenakker-Albanese, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA  more...
 
Updated: Mar 28, 2014
 

History

Clinical history often reflects the etiology of Brown-Séquard syndrome. Onset of symptoms may be acute or gradually progressive. Complaints are related to hemiparesis or hemiparalysis and sensory changes, paresthesias, or dysesthesias in the contralateral limb(s). Isolated weakness or sensory changes may be reported.

Complete hemisection, causing classic clinical features of pure Brown-Séquard syndrome, is rare. Incomplete hemisection causing Brown-Séquard syndrome plus other signs and symptoms is more common. These symptoms may consist of findings from posterior column involvement such as loss of vibratory sensation.

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Physical Examination

Diagnosis and identification of Brown-Séquard syndrome is based on physical examination findings. Partial Brown-Séquard syndrome is characterized by asymmetrical paresis, with hypalgesia more marked on the less paretic side. Pure Brown-Séquard syndrome (rarely seen in clinical practice) is associated with the following:

  • Interruption of the lateral corticospinal tracts - Ipsilateral spastic paralysis below the level of the lesion and Babinski sign ipsilateral to the lesion (abnormal reflexes and Babinski sign may not be present in acute injury)
  • Interruption of posterior white column - Ipsilateral loss of tactile discrimination, as well as vibratory and position sensation, below the level of the lesion
  • Interruption of lateral spinothalamic tracts - Contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation; this usually occurs 2-3 segments below the level of the lesion

Try to differentiate levels of sensation loss, motor loss, temperature loss, and vibratory sense loss. Evaluate bilateral versus unilateral neurologic findings when determining level of loss.

Motor examination in patients with Brown-Séquard syndrome reveals spastic weakness or paralysis with upper motor neuron signs of increased tone, hyperreflexia, clonus, and a Hoffmann sign on 1 side of the body. Motor strength of key muscles representing cervical and lumbar spinal root levels should be graded on the standard 0-5 scale. Special care must be taken to test in positions with gravity eliminated and against gravity.

The sensory examination is notable for contralateral decreased sensations of light touch and hot or cold. Sensory function should be recorded in representative dermatomes from C2-S4/5 for absent, impaired, or normal sensations of light touch and pinpricks.[14]

Classification

Motor and sensory findings can be classified according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standard neurologic classification of SCI (see the image below). The neurologic level is defined as the most caudal segment with normal function. Complete or incomplete assessment is based on sensory or motor function in S4-S5.

American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standard American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standard neurologic classification of spinal cord injury.

The ASIA Impairment Scale reflects the degree of incomplete injury based on motor and sensory function below the neurologic level. (See the image below.)

American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairme American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale.
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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Carol Vandenakker-Albanese, MD Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California Davis Health System; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residency Director, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Carol Vandenakker-Albanese, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, North American Spine Society, American College of Sports Medicine, Association of Academic Physiatrists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Holly Zhao, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Clinical Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California Davis Health System

Holly Zhao, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Medical Association, Association of Academic Physiatrists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA Professor of Clinical Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residency Program Director, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans

Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Michael T Andary, MD, MS Professor, Residency Program Director, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Michael T Andary, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, American Medical Association, and Association of Academic Physiatrists

Disclosure: Allergan Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Pfizer Honoraria Speaking and teaching

Michael S Beeson, MD, MBA, FACEP Professor of Emergency Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy; Attending Faculty, Akron General Medical Center

Michael S Beeson, MD, MBA, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, National Association of EMS Physicians, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Samuel M Keim, MD Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine

Samuel M Keim, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, American Public Health Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Elizabeth A Moberg-Wolff, MD Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin

Elizabeth A Moberg-Wolff, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Disclosure: Medtronic Neurological Grant/research funds Speaking and teaching

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standard neurologic classification of spinal cord injury.
American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale.
 
 
 
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