Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Biceps Rupture Treatment & Management

  • Author: Gary L Branch, DO; Chief Editor: Milton J Klein, DO, MBA  more...
 
Updated: May 13, 2016
 

Rehabilitation Program

Physical Therapy

Depending on the individual case scenario, the type of facility, and physician preference, patients who have suffered a rupture of the biceps tendon can benefit from physical and/or occupational therapy. The proper rehabilitation methods for this type of injury are discussed in the next section.

Occupational Therapy

Begin rehabilitation during conservative management of the biceps rupture, with a complete examination of the limb to identify coexisting injuries or complicating factors that may affect treatment. Rest the affected joint in the acute stage, with or without soft immobilization. Control swelling with cold modalities (eg, cold packs, ice massage, hydrotherapy, specialized cold compression units) and treat inflammation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), barring contraindications.

Postoperative rehabilitation often is shaped by surgeon preferences and intraoperative findings during repair. The typical protocol involves the use of a soft sling immediately following the procedure, allowing the patient to take the arm out for light movements and gentle ROM. By 10-14 days, introduce pulleys or therapy bands for ROM and strengthening; advance functional exercises and maintain and advance ROM until 6-8 weeks. At this point, moderate loading may be tolerated in most cases. Heavy loading is inadvisable for several months, especially in distal tendon repairs.[7]

Early evaluation and treatment by occupational therapy resemble strategies used in rotator cuff repairs. Emphasize preservation of full ROM at the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand, with a gradual increase in weight bearing. Codman pendulum exercises often may be the first step, followed by more functional activities as they are tolerated.

Next

Surgical Intervention

Treatment of biceps tendon ruptures is a topic of debate. Several reviews of surgical repair versus conservative (nonoperative) management report conflicting results; neither a complete agreement nor a general clinical consensus has been reached. Although no concrete evidence provides unconditional support for one treatment protocol, the results of these reviews ultimately may lend credence to the long-standing practice of individualizing treatment to each patient's circumstances.

Generally accepted clinical guidelines advocate surgical repair consisting of tenodesis and subacromial decompression proximally (or anatomic reattachment distally) for young or athletic patients or for persons who require maximum supination strength.[4, 20] Cosmetic concerns may prompt a surgical approach when appearance is unacceptable to the patient following rupture.[21, 22, 23, 24]

Conservative management is considered appropriate for middle-aged or older patients and for those who do not require a high degree of supination strength in daily activities. This approach involves rest, followed closely by ROM and strengthening exercises for the shoulder and elbow. Conservative therapy provides an effective and highly tolerable means of treatment; in most practice settings, the number of patients who are managed conservatively is greater than the number who undergo surgical repair. Various follow-up studies have reported that in nonoperative management, patients lose up to 20% of their supination strength, although the overall level of impairment rarely impacts activities of daily living (ADL).

Currently, it seems prudent to employ individualized and comprehensive treatment strategies tailored to each patient's needs. Such strategies consist of the following:

  • A thorough evaluation for coexisting shoulder and elbow pathology
  • Risk/benefit discussions concerning surgical repair, according to each patient's needs, desires, age of injury, and other relevant information that has been ascertained (Surgical referrals are made most often for patients requiring maximum biceps function or for individuals who are suffering intolerable pain that limits function.)
  • A focus on appropriate rehabilitation efforts aimed at maximizing functional capacity, regardless of acute management

A study by Hinchey et al found a low rate of rerupture following primary repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures. The study, which had a 12-month follow-up period, involved 190 distal ruptures, with 172 of them repaired using the Mayo modification of the Boyd-Anderson two-incision procedure. Only three biceps (1.6%) reruptured; each incident occurred within 3 weeks of the original repair and appeared to have resulted from patient compliance issues and the exposure of the repairs to excessive force.[25]

In a surgical study involving 23 patients, 10 of whom were either professional athletes or highly physically active, Grégory et al reported promising results from an endoscopic procedure in which a suture anchor was used to repair distal biceps tendon ruptures.[26] The investigators found that 22 of the patients were satisfied with the surgery's results, with 20 patients returning to preinjury jobs and sports. Following surgery, the mean loss of pronation and supination among patients was 8.6º and 5º, respectively. One patient suffered a severe neurologic complication, necessitating a second surgical procedure.

A retrospective study by Cusick et al indicated that cortical suspensory fixation used in conjunction with an interference screw can effectively repair distal biceps tendon ruptures, with such surgery showing a low rate of early failure (ie, failure within the first 12 weeks). In the study, early failures occurred in just 2 of 170 distal biceps tendon ruptures (1.2%) treated with the procedure.[27]

A study by Euler et al indicated that open subpectoral long head of the biceps (LHB) tenodesis is a safe and effective means of primary repair for chronic proximal LHB tendon ruptures and of revision for proximal LHB tendon ruptures following failed surgery. The study included 25 patients (18 primary repairs and seven revision surgeries) who were followed up for mean 3.8 years, with significant improvement seen in a disease-specific, internally derived Subjective Proximal Biceps Score, as well as in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Short Form–12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) scores.[28]

In a study of EndoButton versus transosseous suture repair of the distal biceps tendon (both carried out using a two-incision approach), Recordon et al reported that the clinical outcomes of both surgical methods were comparable in terms of pain, supination strength, range of motion, and subjective patient rating. The study involved 46 patients, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 2.1 years.[29]

Previous
Next

Consultations

Surgical consultation and occupational/physical therapy may be necessary in cases of biceps rupture.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Gary L Branch, DO Staff Physician, Memorial Healthcare Center and Mid-Michigan Orthopedics

Gary L Branch, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, American Osteopathic College of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

J Michael Wieting, DO, MEd, FAOCPMR, FAAPMR Senior Associate Dean, Associate Dean of Clinical Medicine, Consultant in Sports Medicine, Assistant Vice President of Program Development, Division of Health Sciences, DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine; Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Professor of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine

J Michael Wieting, DO, MEd, FAOCPMR, FAAPMR is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Association of Academic Physiatrists, American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Aishwarya Patil, MD Physiatrist (Rehabilitation Physician), Vice Chair, Immanuel Rehabilitation Center

Aishwarya Patil, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, Association of Academic Physiatrists, Association of Physicians of India

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Milton J Klein, DO, MBA Consulting Physiatrist, Heritage Valley Health System-Sewickley Hospital and Ohio Valley General Hospital

Milton J Klein, DO, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians, American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, American Academy of Osteopathy, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Medical Association, American Osteopathic Association, American Osteopathic College of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Pain Society, Pennsylvania Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Tagliafico A, Michaud J, Capaccio E, et al. Ultrasound demonstration of distal biceps tendon bifurcation: normal and abnormal findings. Eur Radiol. 2009 Aug 6. [Medline].

  2. Fogg QA, Hess BR, Rodgers KG, et al. Distal biceps brachii tendon anatomy revisited from a surgical perspective. Clin Anat. 2009 Apr. 22(3):346-51. [Medline].

  3. Elser F, Braun S, Dewing CB, Giphart JE, Millett PJ. Anatomy, function, injuries, and treatment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. Arthroscopy. 2011 Apr. 27(4):581-92. [Medline].

  4. Roukoz S, Naccache N, Sleilaty G. The role of the musculocutaneous and radial nerves in elbow flexion and forearm supination: a biomechanical study. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2008 Apr. 33(2):201-4. [Medline].

  5. Carter AM, Erickson SM. Proximal biceps tendon rupture primarily an injury of middle age. Physician Sports Med. 1999. 27:95-102. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  6. Phillips BB, Canale ST, Sisk TD, et al. Ruptures of the proximal biceps tendon in middle-aged patients. Orthop Rev. 1993 Mar. 22(3):349-53. [Medline].

  7. Ramsey ML. Distal biceps tendon injuries: diagnosis and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1999 May-Jun. 7(3):199-207. [Medline].

  8. Chen CH, Hsu KY, Chen WJ, et al. Incidence and severity of biceps long head tendon lesion in patients with complete rotator cuff tears. J Trauma. June 2005. 58(6):1189-93. [Medline].

  9. Neer CS II. Cuff tears, biceps lesions and impingement. Shoulder Reconstruction. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1990. 71-137.

  10. Hall F. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the rotator cuff and biceps tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986 Jul. 68(6):950-1. [Medline].

  11. Wanivenhaus A. [Tendon ruptures in rheumatic patients]. Z Rheumatol. 2007 Feb. 66(1):34, 36-40. [Medline].

  12. Green JB, Skaife TL, Leslie BM. Bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures. J Hand Surg Am. 2012 Jan. 37(1):120-3. [Medline].

  13. Pullat RC, Gadaria MR, Karas RH, et al. Tendon rupture associated with simvastatin/ezetimibe therapy. Am J Cardiol. July 1, 2007. 100(1):152-3. [Medline].

  14. Farin PU. Sonography of the biceps tendon of the shoulder: normal and pathologic findings. J Clin Ultrasound. 1996 Jul-Aug. 24(6):309-16. [Medline].

  15. Ahovuo J, Paavolainen P, Slatis P. Diagnostic value of sonography in lesions of the biceps tendon. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986 Jan. 184-8. [Medline].

  16. Moosmayer S, Smith HJ. Diagnostic ultrasound of the shoulder--a method for experts only? Results from an orthopedic surgeon with relative inexpensive compared to operative findings. Acta Orthop. 2005 Aug. 76(4):503-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Armstrong A, Teefey SA, Wu T, et al. The efficacy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of long head of the biceps tendon pathology. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb. 15(1):7-11. [Medline].

  18. Mayer DP, Schmidt RG, Ruiz S. MRI diagnosis of biceps tendon rupture. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 1992 Sep-Oct. 16(5):345-7. [Medline].

  19. Kannus P, Jozsa L. Histopathological changes preceding spontaneous rupture of a tendon. A controlled study of 891 patients. J Bone Joint Surg [Am]. 1991 Dec. 73(10):1507-25. [Medline].

  20. Sutton KM, Dodds SD, Ahmad CS, Sethi PM. Surgical treatment of distal biceps rupture. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010 Mar. 18(3):139-48. [Medline].

  21. ElMaraghy A, Devereaux M, Tsoi K. The biceps crease interval for diagnosing complete distal biceps tendon ruptures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Sep. 466(9):2255-62. [Medline].

  22. Khan AD, Penna S, Yin Q, et al. Repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures using suture anchors through a single anterior incision. Arthroscopy. 2008 Jan. 24(1):39-45. [Medline].

  23. Fenton P, Qureshi F, Ali A, et al. Distal biceps tendon rupture: a new repair technique in 14 patients using the biotenodesis screw. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Jun 22. [Medline].

  24. Heinzelmann AD, Savoie FH 3rd, Ramsey JR, et al. A combined technique for distal biceps repair using a soft tissue button and biotenodesis interference screw. Am J Sports Med. 2009 May. 37(5):989-94. [Medline].

  25. Hinchey JW, Aronowitz JG, Sanchez-Sotelo J, et al. Re-rupture rate of primarily repaired distal biceps tendon injuries. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Jun. 23(6):850-4. [Medline].

  26. Gregory T, Roure P, Fontes D. Repair of distal biceps tendon rupture using a suture anchor: description of a new endoscopic procedure. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Mar. 37(3):506-11. [Medline].

  27. Cusick MC, Cottrell BJ, Cain RA, et al. Low incidence of tendon rerupture after distal biceps repair by cortical button and interference screw. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Oct. 23(10):1532-6. [Medline].

  28. Euler SA, Horan MP, Ellman MB, Greenspoon JA, Millett PJ. Chronic rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon: comparison of 2-year results following primary versus revision open subpectoral biceps tenodesis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2016 May. 136 (5):657-63. [Medline].

  29. Recordon JA, Misur PN, Isaksson F, Poon PC. Endobutton versus transosseous suture repair of distal biceps rupture using the two-incision technique: a comparison series. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2015 Jun. 24 (6):928-33. [Medline].

  30. Agrawal V, Stinson MJ. Case report: heterotopic ossification after repair of distal biceps tendon rupture utilizing a single-incision Endobutton technique. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2005 Jan-Feb. 14(1):107-9. [Medline].

  31. Deutch SR, Gelineck J, Johannsen HV, et al. Permanent disabilities in the displaced muscle from rupture of the long head tendon of the biceps. Scand J Med Sci Sports. June 2005. 15(3):159-62. [Medline].

  32. Järvinen TA, Järvinen TL, Kannus P, et al. Collagen fibres of the spontaneously ruptured human tendons display decreased thickness and crimp angle. J Orthop Res. 2004 Nov. 22(6):1303-9. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Biceps muscle and tendons
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.