Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Rotator Cuff Disease Treatment & Management

  • Author: André Roy, MD, FRCPC; Chief Editor: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA  more...
 
Updated: Apr 21, 2016
 

Rehabilitation Program

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy can be a useful adjunct in the conservative treatment of patients with degenerative rotator cuffs. Although there are numerous studies on the conservative treatment and surgical approach of the painful shoulder and, more specifically, the rotator cuff, the conclusions of a review of randomized controlled trials of interventions for painful shoulder were that little evidence supports or refutes the efficacy of common interventions for shoulder pain. Lack of definition and strict diagnostic criteria for the different painful shoulder conditions, valid randomization procedures, blinding, valid scales for outcome measurement, and heterogeneous populations are among the reasons why it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about the efficacy of any of these interventions.

In his/her approach to conservative treatment, the clinician must be critical and try to use an evidence-based medicine approach as much as possible when planning the patient's treatment. The clinician also must use a combination of experience and intuition to compensate for the lack of scientific evidence supporting the different therapeutic modalities to be prescribed.

The conservative treatment of the degenerative rotator cuff [25]

  • Pain relief
    • Avoidance of painful motions and activities
    • Simple analgesics
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Physical modalities
    • Manual physical therapy
    • Subacromial corticosteroid injection
    • A new promising procedure called the bupivacaine suprascapular nerve block
  • Restoration of motion
    • Stretching of the glenohumeral capsule and muscles
    • Manual physical therapy of the glenohumeral, scapulothoracic, acromioclavicular, and sternoclavicular joints and the parascapular and scapula-stabilizer muscles
    • Normal scapulohumeral rhythm must be restored.
    • Manual therapy of the cervicodorsal spine, because of its close relationship with the shoulder, often is necessary. Restoration of strength and function: Restoration of strength is achieved by strengthening of the rotator cuff muscles, the scapula-stabilizer muscles and the long humeral depressor muscles (latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major).
  • Proprioception: In a young individual who has premature degenerative rotator cuff changes because of shoulder instability, proprioceptive exercises must complement strengthening exercises.
  • Sport-specific rehabilitation
    • In a young individual or athlete, sport-specific exercises must be included before resuming normal sport activities.
    • With the aging of the active population, this aspect of the rehabilitation, combined with progressive return to sport activities should not be omitted.

A study by Collin et al indicated that in patients with massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears, rehabilitation outcomes are more successful in those with isolated posterior tears than in patients with anterior tears or tears in three or more tendons. In the study, which involved 45 patients, anterior shoulder elevation of over 160° was achieved in 24 individuals, with frequent treatment failures occurring in those with anterior tears or tears in a minimum of three tendons.[26]

 

Physical modalities for rotator cuff disease

Physical modalities are used widely in the treatment of rotator cuff disease. Physical therapists should be diligent in choosing the modalities and their parameters to be used for treatment. Some excellent review articles have been published on the different therapeutic modalities for the painful shoulder. Van der Heijden, Grauer, and Green did a systematic review of randomized clinical trials on the therapeutic effects of physical modalities on painful shoulder disorders. These authors concluded that there is insufficient evidence to prove or disprove the efficacy of most therapies for the treatment of various shoulder pain syndromes.

Based on these review studies, it appears that ultrasound therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), magnetotherapy, and different methods of thermotherapy are not effective in the treatment of shoulder disorder. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy and low power laser could have short-term efficacy as compared with placebo. The lack of proof of efficacy of the different physical modalities was due to small sample sizes and the unsatisfactory methodology of most trials; however, some other trials have shown otherwise.

  • Ultrasound
    • Ebenbichler et al showed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that the use of pulsed ultrasound performed 5 times a week for 15 minutes (0.89 MHz frequency, 2.5 watts per square centimeter, pulsed mode 1:4) significantly resolves calcification of the shoulder, decreases pain, and improves the short-term quality of life (QOL).[27] Long-term follow-up did not show significant differences; however, in the long term, the symptoms of calcifying tendinitis may be self-limiting and may improve independently from the resolution of the calcium deposit.
    • This theory may explain why the use of ultrasound is only significantly effective in the short term. The short-term efficacy of ultrasound therapy has been demonstrated only in calcifying tendinitis. Its efficacy in other shoulder disorders has not been shown. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy
    • Another modality that looks promising is extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Passing a strong electric current through a flat coil inducing a magnetic field generates shock waves. Shock waves were used first for the treatment of delayed and nonunion fractures by stimulating osteogenesis. In an uncontrolled study, shock wave therapy (1500 impulses of 0.28 mj/mm2) reportedly disintegrated calcium deposits partially or completely in 62% of patients, and 75% had significant improvement in pain, power, ROM, and shoulder function. The authors of the study concluded that a larger scale placebo-controlled trial should be conducted to analyze the benefits of this modality.
    • A subsequent prospective, randomized, controlled study by Loew, using valid functional shoulder scale, showed the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy. At 3-6 months, there was a significant improvement in pain and function. At 6 months, there was radiological disappearance or disintegration of calcium deposits in up to 77% of patients. Comparing different regimens of shock waves, they concluded that the improvement in pain and function, as well as the radiological disintegration of calcification was dose-dependent. Thus, extracorporeal shock wave therapy appears to be a promising treatment for calcifying tendinitis. Like ultrasound, its efficacy in other shoulder conditions has not been established.
  • Iontophoresis
    • Some randomized controlled studies have shown the efficacy of topical steroids, NSAIDs, and acetic acid iontophoresis compared with a placebo in different musculoskeletal disorders; however, those studies were not specifically on rotator cuff disease. Moreover, a later trial did not show any difference in outcomes between no treatment and treatment with acetic acid iontophoresis followed immediately by 9 sessions of ultrasound therapy in a constant mode (0.8 W/cm2 at a frequency of 1 MHz for 5 minutes) over a period of 3 weeks. Some authors could not show any effect of iontophoresis on steroid migration through in vivo and in vitro studies, whereas others did. Thus, it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the efficacy of iontophoresis in the treatment of rotator cuff disease.

Exercises

Publications on rotator cuff disease are rare. Despite the fact that the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment was recognized many years ago and that many authors have emphasized its importance, only 1 randomized controlled study has been published. In a landmark study, Brox compared the efficacy of supervised exercises with arthroscopic surgery and placebo laser. At 6 months, there was a significant difference between the exercise group and the placebo group in terms of pain reduction, function, and increased ROM. However, there was no significant difference between the exercise group and the arthroscopic surgery group.

Other studies on the nonoperative treatment of rotator disease have shown satisfactory and unsatisfactory results, but they were all retrospective uncontrolled trials. Therefore, on the basis of the Brox study, a supervised exercise program should be part the conservative treatment of rotator cuff disease.

It is this author's opinion that an exercises program is the basis of the conservative treatment and no therapeutic modality will provide long-term relief of pain and increased functional status unless it is complemented by an exercise program. The goal of this program is to restore shoulder ROM, enhance glenohumeral and scapulothoracic function to normalize the scapulohumeral motion, and improve the shoulder stability. However, more randomized controlled studies are necessary to support this author's opinion, as well as the findings of the Brox study. The reader is referred to an excellent work by Wilk on shoulder rehabilitation for more information.[28]

Manual therapy

Most of the trials on manual therapy study its efficacy in frozen shoulder. Manual therapy has been compared with no intervention, corticosteroid injection, and cold therapy, and it has not shown any superiority over these modalities. As for exercises, trials on manual therapy in rotator cuff disease are rare. Only 1 randomized clinical trial (Graver JL) exists.[29] This study showed that manual therapy combined with supervised shoulder exercise was superior to supervised shoulder exercise alone for decreasing pain, increasing strength, and improving function at 2 months. Thus, manual therapy may be a useful adjunct to exercises and other therapeutic modalities in the treatment of rotator cuff disease. Of course, further randomized controlled studies are needed to support its efficacy.

Postsurgical therapy

A meta-analysis of randomized trials by Chan et al indicated that following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, early motion therapy has no significant benefits over delayed therapy in terms of functional outcome. At the same time, the study found no statistically significant difference in the risk of postsurgical retear between the early and delayed-motion groups. There was, compared with delayed motion therapy, a statistically significant improvement in forward elevation following early passive motion rehabilitation, but the investigators stated that the difference probably had no clinical importance.[30]

In another meta-analysis, by Chang et al, patients who underwent early passive ROM exercises demonstrated greater improvement in forward flexion than those who had delayed rehabilitation, but the investigators also found a greater retear rate associated with early ROM in patients who had undergone surgery for large tears.[31]

According to a consensus statement from the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, a 2-week immobilization period should be followed by the staged introduction, from the second to the sixth postoperative week, of protected, passive ROM. Active ROM should then be restored, with postoperative week 12 marking the start of progressive strengthening. The patient should undergo a functional progression, when appropriate, to allow resumption of athletic or demanding job activities.[32]

Next

Surgical Intervention

Surgery is not part of the conservative treatment and is not discussed here. Readers are referred to the work of Matsen on that topic.

Previous
Next

Consultations

When symptoms persist after an initial treatment, the primary care physician should refer the patient to a specialist. A consultation in physiatry, orthopedic surgery, or rheumatology should be arranged. Because physiatrists are rehabilitation specialists and because most patients are treated conservatively, the author suggests a consultation in physiatry.

Previous
Next

Other Treatment

Subacromial corticosteroid injection

As with NSAIDs, there are many studies with poor methodological quality on the efficacy of corticosteroid injection in various shoulder conditions. Green, Van Der Heijden, and Sibilia have done a systematic review of all the randomized clinical trials on corticosteroid injection. Although the trials selected were essentially the same in the 3 studies, their conclusions differ because of the different assessment methods. Two of these articles suggested that corticosteroid injection may be superior to placebo in the short-term treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis, whereas one suggested that there is no conclusive evidence about the efficacy of corticosteroid injection.

Subacromial corticosteroid and local anesthetic agent injection also appears to be more effective than an injection of a local anesthetic alone, although some authors disagree. Corticosteroid injection also appears to be significantly more effective than NSAIDs. Therefore, subacromial corticosteroid injection appears indicated when pain persists after simple analgesic and NSAIDs have been used.

  • Number of injections: Because some authors have reported poorer surgical outcome in patients who have had 3 or more corticosteroid injections, it is recommended that no more than 2 injections are given.
  • Route of injection: No trials compare the different routes of corticosteroid injection, so the physician should select his or her preferred route.
  • Type of corticosteroid: No trial exists comparing the efficacy of different corticosteroids. Triamcinolone acetonide is the agent most frequently studied.
  • Action mechanism: Inhibition of prostaglandin formation by inhibiting more selectively the COX-2 activity is the mechanism of action.
  • Dose: The optimal dose has not been evaluated. Recommended doses vary from 20-80 mg in the different trials. This author recommends 20-40 mg of triamcinolone acetonide.
  • Side effects: Side effects can be local or systemic. Although systemic side effects can occur following a subacromial injection, only local side effects are discussed here, including the following:
    • Dermal atrophy
    • Necrosis and loss of pigmentation
    • Synovitis
    • Septic arthritis
    • Hemarthroses
    • Cartilage damage and degeneration
    • Tendon rupture
    • Charcot arthropathy

Bupivacaine suprascapular nerve block

The bupivacaine suprascapular nerve block is a relatively unknown, although effective, method to treat different painful shoulder disorders. Few randomized controlled trials have shown its efficacy in painful shoulder of rheumatoid arthritis patients, chronic rotator cuff disease, and frozen shoulder. Preliminary data of a study on chronic impingement syndrome conducted at the Montreal Rehabilitation Institute show its efficacy as compared with placebo. At 3 months, a significant improvement in pain and function measured by a valid functional shoulder scale was observed. Supported by randomized controlled studies, this procedure appears to be a very promising new approach in the treatment of rotator cuff disease.

The technique for nerve block is very inexpensive, simple and safe, and consists of injecting 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.5% in the supraspinatus fossa of the scapula to produce an indirect suprascapular nerve block. In rotator cuff disease, 2 injections are administered 4 weeks apart.

Edetate disodium (disodium EDTA)

Cacchio et al investigated the effectiveness of disodium EDTA treatment for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, administering the drug to 40 patients with the condition and evaluating them against 40 patients with calcific tendinitis who did not receive the therapy.[33] By 1-year follow-up, the calcifications had completely cleared up in 62.5% of the patients who received disodium EDTA and had partially disappeared in 22.5% of them. Among patients in the control group, none of the calcifications vanished completely, although partial disappearance occurred in 15% of these individuals. The investigators suggested that disodium EDTA therapy offers a safe and effective treatment for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

André Roy, MD, FRCPC Consulting Staff, Department of Physiatry, Montreal University Hospital Center and Montreal Rehabilitation Institute

André Roy, MD, FRCPC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Thierry HM Adahan, MD LMCC, CCFP, FRCPC, FABPMR, Head, Pain Rehabilitation Center, Haim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel

Thierry HM Adahan, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Benjamin Dahan University of Montreal, Canada

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Manon Bélair, MS Consulting Staff, Hospital Notre-Dame, Canada

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Patrick M Foye, MD Director of Coccyx Pain Center, Professor and Interim Chair of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Co-Director of Musculoskeletal Fellowship, Co-Director of Back Pain Clinic, University Hospital

Patrick M Foye, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, International Spine Intervention Society, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, Association of Academic Physiatrists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA Professor of Clinical Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residency Program Director, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans

Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Robert E Windsor, MD, FAAPMR, FAAEM, FAAPM President and Director, Georgia Pain Physicians, PC; Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Emory University School of Medicine

Robert E Windsor, MD, FAAPMR, FAAEM, FAAPM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pain Medicine, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Association, International Association for the Study of Pain, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Codman EA. The shoulder. In: Thomas T, ed. Rupture of the Supraspinatus Tendon and Other lesions in or About the Subacromial Bursa. Boston:. 1934.

  2. Duplay. Rotator Cuff Disease. Arch Gén Méd. 1872. 2:513.

  3. Neer CS 2nd. Anterior acromioplasty for the chronic impingement syndrome in the shoulder: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1972 Jan. 54(1):41-50. [Medline].

  4. Neer CS 2nd. Impingement lesions. Clin Orthop. 1983 Mar. (173):70-7.

  5. Von Meyer AW. Chronic functional lesions of the shoulder. Arch Surg. 1937. 35:646-674.

  6. Von Meyer AW. Further observations upon use-destruction in joint. J Bone Joint Surg. 1922. 4:491-511.

  7. Von Meyer AW. Further evidence of attrition in the human body. Am J Anat. 1924. 34:241-260.

  8. Von Meyer AW. The minute anatomy of attrition lesions. J Bone Joint Surg. 1931. 13A:341.

  9. Oliva F, Piccirilli E, Bossa M, et al. I.S.Mu.L.T - Rotator Cuff Tears Guidelines. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2015 Oct-Dec. 5 (4):227-63. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Longo UG, Berton A, Papapietro N, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Epidemiology, genetics and biological factors of rotator cuff tears. Med Sport Sci. 2012. 57:1-9. [Medline].

  11. Bigliani LU. The morphology of the acromion and its relationship to rotator cuff tears. Orthop Trans. 1986. 10:228.

  12. Ozaki J, Fujimoto S, Nakagawa Y, et al. Tears of the rotator cuff of the shoulder associated with pathological changes in the acromion. A study in cadavera. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988 Sep. 70(8):1224-30. [Medline].

  13. Walch G, Liotard JP, Boileau P, Noel E. [Postero-superior glenoid impingement. Another shoulder impingement]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 1991. 77(8):571-4. [Medline].

  14. Rathbun JB, Macnab I. The microvascular pattern of the rotator cuff. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1970 Aug. 52(3):540-53. [Medline].

  15. Nixon JE, DiStefano V. Ruptures of the rotator cuff. Orthop Clin North Am. 1975 Apr. 6(2):423-47. [Medline].

  16. Matsen FA 3rd. Practical Evaluation and Management of the Shoulder. Philadelphia:. WB Saunders Co. 1994:1-242.

  17. Matsen FA 3rd. Rotator cuff. In: Rockwood CA Jr, Matsen FA, eds. The Shoulder. 3rd ed. Philadelphia:. WB Saunders Co. 1998:755-839.

  18. Keener JD, Wei AS, Kim HM, et al. Proximal humeral migration in shoulders with symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Jun. 91(6):1405-13. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  19. Longo UG, Berton A, Ahrens PM, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Clinical tests for the diagnosis of rotator cuff disease. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2011 Sep. 19(3):266-78. [Medline].

  20. Ackland DC, Pandy MG. Lines of action and stabilizing potential of the shoulder musculature. J Anat. 2009 May 28. [Medline].

  21. Leroux JL, Thomas E, Bonnel F, Blotman F. Diagnostic value of clinical tests for shoulder impingement syndrome. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1995 Jun. 62(6):423-8. [Medline].

  22. Gerber C, Krushell RJ. Isolated rupture of the tendon of the subscapularis muscle. Clinical features in 16 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991 May. 73(3):389-94. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  23. Seyahi A, Demirhan M. Arthroscopic removal of intraosseous and intratendinous deposits in calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Arthroscopy. 2009 Jun. 25(6):590-6. [Medline].

  24. Yoo JC, Ahn JH, Yang JH, et al. Correlation of arthroscopic repairability of large to massive rotator cuff tears with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans. Arthroscopy. 2009 Jun. 25(6):573-82. [Medline].

  25. Pegreffi F, Paladini P, Campi F, Porcellini G. Conservative management of rotator cuff tear. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2011 Dec. 19(4):348-53. [Medline].

  26. Collin PG, Gain S, Nguyen Huu F, Ladermann A. Is rehabilitation effective in massive rotator cuff tears?. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2015 Jun. 101 (4 Suppl):S203-5. [Medline].

  27. Ebenbichler GR, Erdogmus CB, Resch KL, et al. Ultrasound therapy for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. N Engl J Med. 1999 May 20. 340(20):1533-8. [Medline].

  28. Wilk KE. Shoulder rehabilitation. In: Physical Rehabilitation of the Injured Athlete. Philadelphia:. 1998:478-553.

  29. Graver JL. Pathologie degenerative de la coiffe des rotateurs, place de la physiotherapie. Rev Rhum (suppl pédagogique). 1996. 63(1):74sp-81sp.

  30. Chan K, MacDermid JC, Hoppe DJ, et al. Delayed versus early motion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a meta-analysis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Aug 12. [Medline].

  31. Chang KV, Hung CY, Han DS, et al. Early Versus Delayed Passive Range of Motion Exercise for Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Am J Sports Med. 2014 Aug 20. [Medline].

  32. Thigpen CA, Shaffer MA, Gaunt BW, Leggin BG, Williams GR, Wilcox RB 3rd. The American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists' consensus statement on rehabilitation following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2016 Apr. 25 (4):521-35. [Medline].

  33. Cacchio A, De Blasis E, Desiati P, et al. Effectiveness of treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder by disodium EDTA. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Jan 15. 61(1):84-91. [Medline].

  34. Bateman JE. The Shoulder and Neck. 2nd ed. London:. WB Saunders Co. 1927.

  35. DePalma AF. Variational anatomy and degenerative lesions of the shoulder joint. Instr Course Lect. 1949. 6:255-281.

  36. Duchenne GB. Physiologie des mouvements. 1867: Réédition en fac-similé. Philadelphia:. WB Saunders Co. 1959.

  37. Inman V. Observations of the function of the shoulder joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1944. 26:1-30.

  38. Keyes EL. Anatomical observations on senile changes in the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg. 1935. 17A:953-960.

  39. Keyes EL. Observations on rupture of supraspinatus tendon. Based upon a study of 73 cadavers. Ann Surg. 1933. 97:849-856.

  40. Lindblom K. On pathogenesis of ruptures of the tendon aponeurosis of the shoulder joint. Acta Radiol. 1939. 20:563.

  41. McLaughlin HL. Lesions of the musculotendinous cuff of the shoulder. The exposure and treatment of tears with retraction. J Bone Joint Surg. 1944. 26:31-51.

  42. Pettersson G. Rupture of the tendon aponeurosis of the shoulder joint in antero-inferior dislocation. Acta Chir Scand. 1942. 77:1-187.

  43. Smith JG. Pathological appearances of seven cases of injury of the shoulder joint with remarks. London Med Gazette. 1834. 14:280.

  44. Teefey SA, Hasan SA, Middleton WD, et al. Ultrasonography of the rotator cuff. A comparison of ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings in one hundred consecutive cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000 Apr. 82(4):498-504. [Medline].

  45. Turkel SJ, Panio MW, Marshall JL, Girgis FG. Stabilizing mechanisms preventing anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981 Oct. 63(8):1208-17. [Medline].

  46. Uhthoff HK. The effect of aging on the soft tissues of the shoulder. In: Matsen FA, Fu FH, Hawkins RJ, eds. The Shoulder: A Balance of Mobility and Stability. Rosemont, Ill:. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1993:269-278.

  47. Valadie AL 3rd, Jobe CM, Pink MM, et al. Anatomy of provocative tests for impingement syndrome of the shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2000 Jan-Feb. 9(1):36-46. [Medline].

  48. van der Heijden GJ, van der Windt DA, de Winter AF. Physiotherapy for patients with soft tissue shoulder disorders: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. BMJ. 1997 Jul 5. 315(7099):25-30. [Medline].

  49. Williams HJ, Ward JR, Egger MJ, et al. Comparison of naproxen and acetaminophen in a two-year study of treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum. 1993 Sep. 36(9):1196-206. [Medline].

  50. Wilson CL. Pathologic study of degeneration and rupture of the supraspinatus tendon. Arch Surg. 1943. 47:121-135.

  51. Winters JC, Sobel JS, Groenier KH, et al. Comparison of physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection for treating shoulder complaints in general practice: randomized, single blind study. BMJ. 1997 May 3. 314(7090):1320-5. [Medline].

  52. Wuelker N, Plitz W, Roetman B. Biomechanical data concerning the shoulder impingement syndrome. Clin Orthop. 1994 Jun. (303):242-9. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Normal plain radiograph of the shoulder in internal, external, and neutral positions.
Subchondral sclerosis of the humeral head as seen in chronic tendinopathy.
Calcification at the insertion of the rotator cuff, another sign of chronic tendinopathy.
Presence of a bony spur on the inferior surface of the acromion.
Superior migration of the humeral head in chronic, complete rotator cuff tear. Note the reduced space between the acromion and the humeral head.
Normal double-contrast arthrography of the shoulder.
This image depicts the channel between the articular capsule and the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa in a complete rotator cuff tear.
Even if the channel cannot be always identified, the presence of contrast medium in the subdeltoid-subacromial bursa signs the presence of a complete rotator cuff tear.
Complete rotator cuff tear with presence of contrast medium in the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa. Also note the multiple irregularities in the synovial fluid showed as multiples filling defects.
Computed tomography (CT)-arthrography scan of the shoulder in the axial plane. Note the presence of air and contrast in the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa.
Full-thickness tear of the supraspinatus seen as a hyperintensity line through the full thickness of the tendon (as viewed in a flash 2-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] sequence in the coronal oblique plane).
Slight hyperintensity signal within the tendon without transsectional hyperintensity throughout the tendon is compatible with tendinopathy without complete tear. Additionally, note the presence of the hyperintensity signal in the region of the subdeltoid-subacromial bursa, which indicates bursitis.
Calcifications are seen as hypointense foci in flash 2-dimensional.
Arthro–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help to identify labral tears, as seen in this image. The contrast medium penetrates between the labrum and the articular surface.
Ultrasonography is another modality that can demonstrate a complete rotator cuff tear. This image reveals a gap of more than 2 cm between both extremities of the torn tendon.
Table 1: Radiological Findings on Plain Film
  Tendinitis Partial Tear Complete Tear
Normal X X X
Soft tissue calcification(s) X X X
Greater tuberosity flattening or hypertrophy X X X
Humeral head cysts X X X
Acromial sclerosis X X X
Acromial spurs X X X
Acromion type 2 and 3 X X X
Acromioclavicular osteoarthritis X X X
Upward migration of humeral head ( < 6 mm)     X
Table 2: Radiological Findings on MRI
Tendons Soft tissues Bone structures
Thickening of rotator cuff tendon (RCT) Intra-articular effusion Greater tuberosity flattening or hypertrophy
Grey signal intensity within the RCT Subacromial-subdeltoid bursal effusion Humeral head cysts
Fluid-filled gap across the tendon Muscle atrophy Acromial sclerosis
Retraction Thickening of coracoacromial ligament Anterior acromial spur
Grey signal intensity in the long head of biceps tendon   Acromion type 2 and 3



Acromioclavicular osteoarthritis



Rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon   Upward migration of humeral head



Os acromiale



Calcifications in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus or teres minor   Bone edema
Table 3: Radiological Signs of Specific Disorders
  Tendinitis Partial Tear Complete Tear
Thickening of RCT X X  
Grey signal intensity within the RCT X X  
High signal intensity crossing only 1 surface of the tendon   X  
Fluid-filled gap across the tendon     X
Retraction     X
Grey signal intensity in the long head of the biceps tendon X X X
Rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon X X X
Calcifications in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus or teres minor tendon X X X
Intra-articular effusion X X X
Subacromial-subdeltoid bursa effusion      
Muscular atrophy     X
Thickening of coracoacromial ligament X X X
Greater tuberosity flattening or hyper-trophy X X X
Humeral head cysts X X X
Acromial sclerosis X X X
Anterior acromial spur X X X
Acromion type 2 and 3   X X
Acromio-clavicular osteoarthritis X X X
Upward migration of humeral head     X
Table 4: Ultrasonographic Signs of Rotator Cuff Disease
Primary signs Accessory findings
Focal interruption of tendon Retraction of the muscle
Presence of fluid in the gap Synovial cysts in the humeral head
Lost of convexity of the tendon and bursa Hyperechoic foci + shadowing (calcium)
Uncovered cartilage sign Fluid effusion in the bursa
Diffusely hypoechoic tendon articulation Fluid effusion in the Ganglion cysts
Previous
Next
 
 
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.