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Enteropathic Arthropathies Medication

  • Author: Pierre Minerva, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 30, 2014
 

Medication Summary

If both bowel and joint disease are active, then agents that target both should be preferred choices. Medications used to manage the enteropathic arthropathies include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, corticosteroids, second-line agents such as sulfasalazine, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists.

The selection of a second-line agents should be left to an experienced rheumatologist or gastroenterologist who is familiar with these agents and the required monitoring.

Corticosteroids may be given orally, intravenously, intramuscularly, or intra-articularly to patients for whom NSAIDs alone are not adequate. Consult with a specialist who is familiar with corticosteroids before prescribing them for specific uses.

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Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Oral

Class Summary

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the initial choice of medication to control pain and inflammation related to enteropathic arthropathies. The potential benefits of this class of drugs must be weighed against the possibility that they may exacerbate the underlying GI disease. Several NSAIDs effectively treat this condition, and administration of any one of them is appropriate. Newer cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors may be less toxic to the GI tract.[8, 9]

Celecoxib (Celebrex)

 

Celecoxib primarily inhibits COX-2. COX-2 is considered an inducible isoenzyme, being induced by pain and inflammatory stimuli. Inhibition of COX-1 may contribute to NSAID GI toxicity. At therapeutic concentrations, COX-1 isoenzyme is not inhibited; thus, incidence of GI toxicity, such as endoscopic peptic ulcers, bleeding ulcers, perforations, and obstructions, may be decreased when compared with nonselective NSAIDs.

Seek the lowest dose for each patient. Celecoxib has a sulfonamide chain and depends primarily on cytochrome P450 enzymes (which are hepatic enzymes) for metabolism.

Meloxicam (Mobic)

 

Meloxicam decreases the activity of COX, which, in turn, inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. These effects decrease the formation of inflammatory mediators.

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5-aminosalicylic Acid Derivative

Class Summary

A second-line agent may be considered for articular disease inadequately controlled by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids or it may be considered as a steroid-sparing agent. Because of their complex toxicities, second-line agents require administration and monitoring by an experienced medical specialist.

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)

 

Sulfasalazine has been shown to reduce inflammatory symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in controlled studies. The most common toxicities include nausea, dyspepsia, vomiting, diarrhea, and hypersensitivity reactions (rash).

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DMARDs, TNF Inhibitors

Class Summary

After nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are uniquely recommended as the next line of treatment for inflammatory spinal disease and enthesopathy, although they can be effective for all aspects of articular disease.[14] Specific agents may vary in their effectiveness against bowel disease activity; furthermore, new-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been described in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who were treated with TNF antagonists.[13, 15]

Infliximab (Remicade)

 

Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody. It neutralizes the cytokine TNF-alpha and inhibits its binding to the TNF-alpha receptor. Infliximab has GI indications for fistulous Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and rheumatologic indications for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis (and psoriasis), and AS. It has been shown to be effective for extra-articular manifestations, such as refractory uveitis and pyoderma gangrenosum.

Etanercept (Enbrel)

 

Etanercept is a fusion receptor protein that blocks TNF activity. It inhibits the binding of TNF to cell surface receptors, decreasing inflammatory and immune responses. Etanercept is indicated for AS, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

Adalimumab (Humira)

 

Adalimumab is a recombinant human immunoglobulin-G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody specific for human TNF. It is indicated for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, AS, and CD.

Golimumab (Simponi)

 

Golimumab is a TNF-alpha inhibitor. It decreases inflammation caused by the overproduction of TNF associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Golimumab is indicated for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, active psoriatic arthritis, and active AS. It is available as the 50 mg/0.5 mL, single-dose Simponi SmartJect (Autoinjector) or as a prefilled syringe.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Pierre Minerva, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Rheumatology, Bryn Mawr Medical Specialists Association; Consulting Staff, Department of Rheumatology, Bryn Mawr Hospital, Lankenau Hospital, Paoli Hospital

Pierre Minerva, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Herbert S Diamond, MD Visiting Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center; Chairman Emeritus, Department of Internal Medicine, Western Pennsylvania Hospital

Herbert S Diamond, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American College of Rheumatology, American Medical Association, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Lawrence H Brent, MD Associate Professor of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University; Chair, Program Director, Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Lawrence H Brent, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Physicians, and American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Abbott Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Centocor Consulting fee Consulting; Genentech Grant/research funds Other; HGS/GSK Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Omnicare Consulting fee Consulting; Pfizer Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Roche Speaking and teaching; Savient Honoraria Speaking and teaching; UCB Honoraria Speaking and teaching

Kristine M Lohr, MD, MS Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for the Advancement of Women's Health and Division of Rheumatology, Director, Rheumatology Training Program, University of Kentucky College of Medicine

Kristine M Lohr, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians and American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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