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Hemorrhagic Shock Treatment & Management

  • Author: John Udeani, MD, FAAEM; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA  more...
 
Updated: Mar 27, 2015
 

Medical Care

The primary treatment of hemorrhagic shock is to control the source of bleeding as soon as possible and to replace fluid.

In controlled hemorrhagic shock (CHS), where the source of bleeding has been occluded, fluid replacement is aimed toward normalization of hemodynamic parameters. In uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UCHS), in which the bleeding has temporarily stopped because of hypotension, vasoconstriction, and clot formation, fluid treatment is aimed at restoration of radial pulse or restoration of sensorium or obtaining a blood pressure of 80 mm Hg by aliquots of 250 mL of lactated Ringer's solution (hypotensive resuscitation).

When evacuation time is shorter than 1 hour (usually urban trauma), immediate evacuation to a surgical facility is indicated after airway and breathing (A, B) have been secured ("scoop and run"). Precious time is not wasted by introducing an intravenous line. When expected evacuation time exceeds 1 hour, an intravenous line is introduced and fluid treatment is started before evacuation. The resuscitation should occur before, or concurrently with, any diagnostic studies.

Crystalloid is the first fluid of choice for resuscitation. Immediately administer 2 L of isotonic sodium chloride solution or lactated Ringer’s solution in response to shock from blood loss. Fluid administration should continue until the patient's hemodynamics become stabilized. Because crystalloids quickly leak from the vascular space, each liter of fluid expands the blood volume by 20-30%; therefore, 3 L of fluid need to be administered to raise the intravascular volume by 1 L.

Alternatively, colloids restore volume in a 1:1 ratio. Currently available colloids include human albumin, hydroxy-ethyl starch products (mixed in either 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride solution or lactated Ringer’s solution), or hypertonic saline-dextran combinations. The sole product that is avoided routinely in large-volume (>1500 mL/d) restoration is the hydroxy-ethyl starch product mixed in 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride solution because it has been associated with the induction of coagulopathy. The other products have not been so implicated.

In patients with hemorrhagic shock, hypertonic saline has the theoretical benefit of increasing intravascular volume with only small amounts of fluid. The combination of dextran and hypertonic saline may be beneficial in situations where infusion of large volumes of fluid may be harmful, such as in elderly persons with impaired cardiac activity. Additional trials will be required before this combination is accepted as standard of care.

PRBCs should be transfused if the patient remains unstable after 2000 mL of crystalloid resuscitation. For acute situations, O-negative noncrossmatched blood should be administered. Administer 2 U rapidly, and note the response. For patients with active bleeding, several units of blood may be necessary.

There are recognized risks associated with the transfusion of large quantities of PRBCs. As a result, other modalities are being investigated. One such modality is hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC). Clinical application has been limited by its toxic effect profile. However, research is ongoing on the use of these products.

In an Australian study of the long-term outcomes of major-trauma patients who received massive transfusions, massive transfusion was independently associated with unfavorable outcomes. In massively transfused patients, the authors found no significant change in measured outcomes over the study period, with a persistent 23% mortality in hospital, a 52% unfavorable GOSE (Glasgow Outcome Score - extended) at 6 months, and a 44% unfavorable GOSE at 12 months.[2]

If at all possible, blood and crystalloid infusions should be delivered through a fluid warmer. A blood sample for type and cross should be drawn, preferably before blood transfusions are begun. Start type-specific blood when available. Patients who require large amounts of transfusion inevitably will become coagulopathic. FFP generally is infused when the patient shows signs of coagulopathy, usually after 6-8 U of PRBCs. Platelets become depleted with large blood transfusions. Platelet transfusion is also recommended when a coagulopathy develops.

In a large, comprehensive cohort study by Levi et al, placebo-controlled trials of recombinant factor VIIIa (rFVIIa) were examined.[3] Off-label treatment with high doses of rFVIIa significantly increased the risk of arterial events but not venous thromboembolic events, especially among elderly patients.[4]

Special concern

One situation that may arise is the transfusing of massive amounts of blood products into a Jehovah's Witness. This error occurs on occasion. Despite acting in the patient's best interest (prior to knowing that the patient would not want a blood transfusion), this error is a major incident for the patient. In this situation, honesty with the patient and the family member(s) is the rule. Involve the hospital's risk manager early. Family conferencing with a clergy member sometimes is helpful as well.

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Surgical Care

The decision regarding whether to operate to control bleeding is complicated and beyond the scope of this article. Some generalities, however, may be advanced.

Acute life-threatening bleeding within the abdominal or thoracic cavity is an indication for operation.

Retroperitoneal bleeding is difficult to control operatively and generally is treated nonoperatively.

Severe upper GI bleeds should be managed first by EGD, with the possibility of cauterizing or injecting the bleeding source with epinephrine. Failure of endoscopic management usually is an indication for surgery.

Confirm the location of a lower GI bleed before operative intervention is performed.

Severe vaginal bleeding should prompt early involvement of the gynecologist. Ectopic pregnancies are treated with immediate surgery. Abruptio placenta is a true emergency and should prompt immediate cesarean section.

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Consultations

On occasion, consultation with a hematologist is essential. This is especially true if the coagulopathy fails to be corrected with standard measures. Increasingly recognized are the entities of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and acquired antibodies to native clotting factors. Consultation is useful in identifying the correct tests to obtain, as well as the full range of useful modalities to correct the underlying defect. These may include IV gamma-globulin infusion, plasmapheresis, or, simply, large-volume clotting factor repletion.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

John Udeani, MD, FAAEM Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

John Udeani, MD, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Robert L Sheridan, MD Assistant Chief of Staff, Chief of Burn Surgery, Shriners Burns Hospital; Associate Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Burns, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

Robert L Sheridan, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, American Burn Association, American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Received research grant from: Shriners Hospitals for Children; Physical Sciences Inc<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: SimQuest Inc -- consultant on burn mapping softwear ($1,500).

Chief Editor

John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA Vice Chair and Professor, Department of Surgery, Section of Gastrointestinal Medicine, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine; Director, Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, Yale-New Haven Hospital; American Gastroenterological Association Fellow

John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, MA is a member of the following medical societies: American Gastroenterological Association, American Physiological Society, American Society of Nephrology, Association for Academic Surgery, International Society of Nephrology, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract

Disclosure: Received royalty from AMGEN for consulting; Received ownership interest from Ardelyx for consulting.

Additional Contributors

Lewis J Kaplan, MD, FACS, FCCM, FCCP Associate Professor of Surgery, Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania; Section Chief, Surgical Critical Care, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Lewis J Kaplan, MD, FACS, FCCM, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, American College of Surgeons, Association for Academic Surgery, Association for Surgical Education, Connecticut State Medical Society, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, International Trauma Anesthesia and Critical Care Society, Society for the Advancement of Blood Management, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Surgical Infection Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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CT scan of a 26-year-old man after a motor vehicle crash shows a significant amount of intra-abdominal bleeding.
 
 
 
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