Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Penile Cancer

  • Author: Stanley A Brosman, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
 
Updated: Oct 31, 2015
 

Background

Penile carcinoma

Penile cancer is uncommon, but, when it is diagnosed, it is psychologically devastating to the patient and often presents a challenge to the urologist. Benign, premalignant, and malignant conditions must be differentiated. Penile squamous cell carcinoma (see image below), the most common penile malignancy, behaves similarly to squamous cell carcinoma in other parts of the skin. Metastasis, which occurs with this type of carcinoma when the diagnosis or treatment is delayed, is usually lethal. This is a slow-growing cancer in its early stages, and because it seldom interferes with voiding or erectile function, patients do not complain until pain or a discharge from the cancer occurs. By this time, the cancer has usually progressed from being superficial to invasive.

Squamous cell carcinoma (Image courtesy of Hon Pak Squamous cell carcinoma (Image courtesy of Hon Pak, MD).

Patients with carcinoma of the penis tend to delay seeking medical attention, with 15-50% delaying medical attention for more than 1 year from onset. This delay is attributed to embarrassment, guilt, fear, ignorance, and personal neglect. Patients often try to treat themselves with various skin creams and lotions. These may appear to be effective for a time, which further delays the diagnosis and worsens the prognosis.

Delays may also attributable to the physician. Some patients with penile cancer report that they received various salves and antibiotics from their primary care physicians before they saw an urologist. A delay in diagnosis and therapy not only affects the likelihood of survival but also limits the ability to retain a functioning and cosmetically satisfactory result. Nearly 25% of dysplastic or neoplastic penile lesions are misdiagnosed as being benign.

A biopsy should be considered in any uncircumcised male who presents with a penile lesion. These tend to originate on the glans penis and the undersurface of the prepuce. Many benign conditions may be found in this area, and only a biopsy can clarify the diagnosis.

Next

History of the Procedure

Surgery has been the traditional therapy for penile cancer. Superficial penile carcinoma is typically managed with local resection, often with just a circumcision, whereas invasive disease is treated with partial or total penectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy. Cancers on the glans or adjacent to the urethral meatus may be treated with Mohs surgery, in which a microscopic dissection can remove the cancer but obtain a good cosmetic result.

Comparing treatment strategies is difficult because this is a rare cancer and no institution is able to amass enough experience to conduct clinical trials. Most published reports cover a span of a decade or longer. The single greatest predictor of disease-free survival is the presence of inguinal nodal metastasis. The morbidity associated with inguinal lymphadenectomy has discouraged surgeons from aggressively pursuing this treatment unless palpable nodes are present. As many as 30% of patients without palpable inguinal nodes have micrometastatic disease. If these are removed, the surgery can be curative.

In recent years, improved diagnostic techniques have been developed to determine the presence of lymph node metastases. Surgical techniques have been refined to reduce the morbidity associated with penile and lymph node resection. Some surgeons are using laser treatment to remove small, superficial cancers.

Radiotherapy is an alternative to conservative surgical treatment for stage T1-T2 tumors of the glans that are less than 4 cm in size.

Local chemotherapy with 5% 5-fluorouracil cream or 5% imiquimod cream have reported success rates of 70% and 52%. Systemic chemotherapy is recommended in patients with inguinal lymph node metastases. The results are poor in men with extensive metastases.

Invasive penile cancer diagnosed in the absence of clinically evident nodal metastases (as determined by physical examination or imaging) can be treated with local resection and penile reconstruction. Inguinal lymph nodes need to be evaluated with bilateral lymphadenectomy or sentinel node biopsies. In some situations, radiation therapy to the penile tumor is applicable. Palpable inguinal lymph nodes should be assessed to determine the presence or absence of nodal metastasis. The 30% incidence of micrometastases in nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes emphasizes the importance of nodal assessment.

The ability to identify a sentinel node has been a valuable adjunct in the refinement of surgical management. Various imaging techniques have shown increasing sensitivity for identifying these nodes, sparing the need for extensive, bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy, which is associated with a high degree of morbidity.

In the past, an excisional margin of 2 cm around the cancer was thought to be necessary, but with improved histopathology techniques, a margin of 0.5-1 cm may be sufficient. In addition, although a 4-week to 6-week waiting period was once believed to be necessary to treat the patient with antibiotics prior to surgery. This would allow lymph nodes that were enlarged as a result of infection to return to their normal state. Currently, tumor excision and lymph node excision are performed at the same time.

The presence of palpable inguinal nodal metastasis is managed by a bilateral radical lymphadenectomy followed by an extensive pelvic lymphadenectomy. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is used depending on the surgical outcome.

Previous
Next

Problem

Penile tumors can originate anywhere on the penis, but most are found on the glans (48%) and prepuce (21%). The presentation can be a hyperemic area on the glans or near the urethral meatus. The cancers can range from an area of subtle induration to a small excrescence or papule. They can be exophytic or flat, or an ulcerated lesion may be present. A sensation of itching or burning under the foreskin or an ulceration of the glans are the most common presenting symptoms. Pain is rarely present.

A circumcised male rarely develops penile cancer; however, men with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are predisposed to the development of squamous cell carcinomas that can occur anywhere on the body, including the penis.

Tumors may initially form on the corona of the glans and spread superficially across the glans and into the prepuce. Phimosis may conceal the cancer, allowing it to progress. Eventually, as the cancer grows, erosion through the prepuce, a foul odor, and a discharge are evident. Buck fascia acts as a natural barrier to the corpora, but over time, the cancer invades the corpora. As these cancers spread over the glans, they may involve the urethral meatus and grow into the urethra.

The etiology of these cancers may be related to chronic exposure to carcinogens contained in smegma that collects within the prepuce although no specific carcinogens have been identified.

Patients who are diagnosed with penile cancer have various treatment options. If the tumor is smaller than 2 cm (and particularly if it is confined to the prepuce), circumcision may be all that is necessary. Penile cancer tends to remain confined to the skin for long periods, often years, but when it invades the deeper tissues, the cancer has ready access to lymphatics and blood vessels and the growth rate is rapid.

Previous
Next

Epidemiology

Frequency

Penile cancer is rare in Western countries. The American Cancer Society estimated that in 2015, 1820 penile cancers would be diagnosed in the United States, with 310 deaths.[1] This death rate of 17% underscores the seriousness of this cancer; for comparison, only 3% of men with prostate cancer die from this disease.

Penile cancer accounts for 0.4-0.6% of all malignancies in the United States and Europe. In the rest of the world, the situation is different and represents an important health problem. Penile carcinoma represents 20-30% of all cancers diagnosed in men who live in Asia, Africa, and South America.

In urban India, the age-adjusted incidence of penile cancer ranges from 0.7-2.3 cases per 100,000 men. In rural India, the rate of penile cancer is 3 cases per 100,000 men, accounting for more than 6% of all malignancies in this population. In underdeveloped countries such as Uganda, the incidence is 2.8/100,000 and 1% of the men have developed this cancer by age 75. In Brazil, the age-adjusted incidence of penile cancer is 8.3 cases per 100,000 population.

Barnholtz-Sloan et al studied the incidence trends of primary penile cancer in the United States using data from The National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of 1,817 men. They found that the overall incidence of primary malignant penile cancer has been decreasing over the past 3 decades. The overall incidence was 0.84 per 100,000 from 1973-1982, 0.69 from 1982-1992, and 0.58 from 1993-2002. Most of the cancers were squamous cell and originated on the glans. From 1993-2002, the incidence was highest among Hispanics (1.01 per 100,000), followed by Alaskan Native Americans (0.77 per 100,000) and African Americans (0.62 per 100,000).[2]

Penile cancer is rare in circumcised men, particularly if they were circumcised as a neonate. Seyam et al studied penile carcinoma in 22 men who had been circumcised. Eighteen of these patients came from the southwest part of Saudi Arabia and had undergone late ritual circumcision. This practice, known as “Tihamah” circumcision, involves removing an extensive amount of skin, including some of the pubic skin. This procedure results in extensive cicatrization, which is probably the underlying cause of the resulting squamous cell cancer. Radiation therapy was attempted in a few of the patients, with unsuccessful results, whereas the group treated with surgery had a median survival of 34 months.[3]

Penile cancer tends to be a disease of older men. The incidence of penile cancer increases abruptly in men aged 60 years or older and peaks in men aged 80 years. However, the tumor is not unusual in younger men. One study reported that 22% of patients with penile cancer were younger than 40 years, and 7% were younger than 30 years.

Previous
Next

Etiology

The frequency of penile carcinoma varies according to hygienic practices and cultural and religious beliefs. Phimosis is present in at least 25-75% of men with this disease. Information on presence of phimosis often goes unrecorded in underdeveloped countries, and epidemiologic data are lacking.

Circumcision has been well established as an effective prophylactic measure for penile cancer. Data from most large series have demonstrated that penile cancer is almost never observed in individuals who are circumcised in the neonatal period. The disease is found more frequently when circumcision is delayed until puberty. Adult circumcision offers little or no protection.

No firm evidence indicates that smegma acts as a carcinogen, although this belief is widely held. The role of viral infection continues to be studied. Both penile cancer in men and cervical cancer in women have been associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In women whose sexual partners had penile cancer, the prevalence of cervical cancer is increased 3- to 8-fold. HPV-16 and HPV-18 have been found in one third of men with penile cancer. Whether these viruses are involved with causation of the cancer or are found as saprophytes has not been determined. No data have indicated that herpes viral infections cause penile cancer.

Madsen et al studied a population that included 71 patients with invasive or in situ squamous cell carcinoma, 86 prostate cancer controls, and 103 men as population controls. PCR was used to examine for HPV in tissue samples of 37 patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The study found high-risk HPV in 65% of the 37 patients, of whom 22 of 24 (92%) were found to have HPV-16. Risk factors included early and high sexual activity, the lifetime number of sexual partners, the number of sexual partners prior to age 20 years, age at first occurrence of intercourse, penile-oral sex, a history of anogenital warts, and never having used condoms. A history of phimosis and priapism occurring more than 5 years prior to diagnosis were also significant risk factors.[4]

Cigarette smoking and chewing tobacco are also considered to be a risk factors. Harish and Ravi reported that the risk for those smoking more than 10 cigarettes a day was 2.14. The combination of chewing tobacco and cigarette smoking raised the risk to 3.39.[5] Maden et al found that the risk of penile cancer in men who were smoking at the time of diagnosis was 2.8 times that of men who never smoked.[6]

Penile trauma, usually consisting of small tears or abrasions involving the prepuce, and a history of chronic balanitis that occurred more than 2 years prior to diagnosis had an odds ratio of 23 for carcinoma in situ and 4.6 for invasive cancer. Hellberg et al reported that multiple episodes of balanitis had a relative risk of 9.49.[7] These observations support the theory correlating chronic inflammation to the development of cancer.

Abnormalities considered to be nonmalignant include cutaneous horns, pseudoepitheliomatous keratotic and micaceous balanitis, balanitis xerotica obliterans, giant condyloma, and bowenoid papulosis. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be premalignant, but only 5-15% of these lesions evolve into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. When carcinoma in situ (CIS) occurs on the glans, it is termed erythroplasia of Queyrat; however, when it occurs on the follicle-bearing skin of the shaft, it is termed Bowen disease.

CIS can also develop in the tissue around the urethral meatus and spread down the urethra. These lesions have a red to red-brown appearance and generally have an irregular border. Suspicious lesions should prompt a biopsy to establish a diagnosis.

The National Cancer Institute’s SEER program was used to gather data on 1605 men diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. CIS was diagnosed in 37% of this population, localized disease was diagnosed in 39%, regional disease was present in 13%, distant disease was present in 2.3%, and unstaged disease remained in 7.9%.

According to SEER data, the proportion of men presenting annually with CIS has tended to increase, although the number of men with localized disease has decreased. Older age at diagnosis was associated with a higher stage of disease. The mean time until death from cancer was 66.6 months in those with CIS, 50.1 months in those with localized disease, 32.4 months in those with regional disease, and 7.4 months in those with distant metastases. Overall, 22.4% of the patients in this database died of this cancer.

Previous
Next

Pathophysiology

Penile cancers usually begin as small lesions on the glans or prepuce. They range from white-grey, irregular exophytic to reddish flat and ulcerated endophytic masses. They gradually grow laterally along the surface and can cover the entire glans and prepuce before invading the corpora and shaft of the penis. The more extensive the lesion, the greater the possibility of local invasion and nodal metastasis. Penile cancers may be papillary and exophytic or flat and ulcerative. Untreated, penile autoamputation can occur.

The growth rates of the papillary and ulcerative lesions are similar, but the flat ulcerative lesions tend to metastasize to the lymph nodes earlier and are therefore associated with a lower 5-year survival rate. Cancers larger than 5 cm and those involving more than 75% of the shaft are associated with a high prevalence of nodal metastases and a lower survival rate, but a consistent relationship among the size of the cancer, the presence of inguinal node metastases, and survival has not been identified.

The Buck fascia, which surrounds the corpora, acts as a temporary barrier. Eventually, the cancer penetrates the Buck fascia and the tunica albuginea, where the cancer has access to the vasculature and from which systemic spread is possible.

Metastasis to the femoral and inguinal lymph nodes is the earliest path for tumor dissemination. The lymphatics of the prepuce join with those from the shaft. These drain into the superficial inguinal nodes. Because of lymphatic crossover, cancer cells have access to lymph nodes in both inguinal areas.

The lymphatics of the glans follow a different path and join those draining the corpora. A circular band of lymphatics that drains to the superficial nodes is located at the base of the penis and can extend to both the superficial and deep pelvic lymph nodes.

The superficial inguinal nodes drain to the deep inguinal nodes, which are beneath the fascia lata. From here, drainage is to the pelvic nodes. Multiple cross connections exist at all levels, permitting bilateral penile lymphatic drainage.

Untreated metastatic enlargement of the regional nodes leads to skin necrosis, chronic infection, and, eventually, death from sepsis or hemorrhage secondary to erosion into the femoral vessels. Clinically apparent distant metastases to the lung, liver, bone, or brain are unusual until late in the disease course, often after the primary disease has been treated. Distant metastases are usually associated with regional node involvement.

Microscopically, the tumors vary from well-differentiated keratinizing tumors to solid anaplastic carcinomas with scant keratinization. Most tumors are highly keratinized and are of moderate differentiation. Poorly differentiated carcinomas have variable amounts of spindle cell, giant cell, solid, acantholytic, clear cell, small cell, warty, basaloid, or glandular components.

Penile carcinoma follows a relentless and progressive course that proves to be fatal in most untreated patients within 2 years. The typical SCC has a recurrence rate of 28% and lymph node metastases are found in 28-39% depending upon the extent and grade of the tumor. The mortality rate is 20-38% with a 10-year survival rate of 78%. Spontaneous remission has not been reported.

Previous
Next

Presentation

Typical presentations of penile cancer include a lesion that has failed to heal, a subtle induration in the skin, a small excrescence, a papule, a pustule, a warty growth, a large exophytic growth, or a reddened area on the glans. The malignancy may appear as a shallow erosion or a deep ulceration with rolled edges. Because most of patients with penile cancer are uncircumcised, they may have a phimosis that obscures the tumor and allows it to grow undetected. Many men do not seek medical attention until the cancer has eroded through the prepuce and has become malodorous because of infection and necrosis.

In rare cases, an inguinal mass ulcerates, suppurates, or hemorrhages.

Few symptoms are associated with the development of penile cancer. Even after significant local tissue destruction, pain is uncommon. Patients with advanced metastatic cancer may report weakness, weight loss, and fatigue; the penile lesion may bleed.

The presence of a nonhealing penile lesion usually prompts the patient to visit a physician. While carcinoma may manifest as a hyperemic patch on the glans that is characteristic of erythroplasia of Queyrat or as an ulcerated growth on the inner surface of the prepuce, the differential diagnoses include benign and premalignant lesions.

Penile lesions can be categorized as benign, premalignant, or malignant neoplasms. Benign lesions include pearly penile papules, hirsute papillomas, and coronal papillae. These lesions do not require treatment and are usually found on the glans in uncircumcised males. Rashes, ulcerations from irritation, and allergic reactions or infections must be considered. Some histologically benign lesions are potentially malignant (premalignant) or have been associated with the presence of squamous cell carcinoma. The most common is balanitis xerotica obliterans. This is a variation of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and manifests as a white patch on the prepuce or glans, where it usually involves the urethral meatus. This can produce severe cicatrization, leading to obstruction of the urethra.

Leukoplakia manifests as solitary plaque or multiple whitish plaques, which often involve the meatus. Leukoplakia has been associated with squamous cell carcinoma.

Viral lesions include condyloma acuminata, which are soft papillomatous growths. They are known as venereal warts and have a predilection for the genital and perineal regions. These lesions are usually sexually transmitted and are caused by HPV. Viral types 6, 11, 42, and 44 are associated with low-grade dysplasia. Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, and 39 are associated with neoplastic changes. De Paula et al studied the presence of koilocytosis, which is a feature of productive HPV infection and is characterized by large halos around cell nuclei. Koilocytosis is found in approximately 30%-60% of patients with penile cancer. They found that the presence of koilocytosis correlated with Jackson stage and grade but not with nodal disease or survival.[8]

Lichen sclerosis, also known as balanitis xerotica obliterans, is a chronic lymphocyte-mediated skin disease that can develop on any cutaneous surface and has been associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Biopsy of the lesion should be obtained prior to initiating therapy. A direct causative link between these entities has not been established, but the presence of a chronic inflammatory lesion is thought to promote the development of many types of cancers.

A study by Mannweiler et al revealed HPV-negative carcinomas were correlated with advanced lichen sclerosus and lichen planus, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and accumulation of T lymphocytes with monoclonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor γ locus.[9]

Kaposi sarcoma manifests as a cutaneous neovascular lesion that is raised, usually painful, and often ulcerated with a bluish discoloration. Patients with AIDS are predisposed to develop this condition.

Giant condyloma acuminata or a Buschke-Löwenstein tumor differs from the standard condyloma in that it displaces, invades, and destroys adjacent structures by compression, whereas the standard condyloma remains superficial and never invades. Despite their large size and invasive potential, Buschke-Löwenstein tumors show no signs of malignant change upon histologic examination.

Malignant carcinomas include variants of squamous cell carcinoma such as CIS, erythroplasia of Queyrat, or Bowen disease. The diagnosis depends on their appearance and the site of origin. Erythroplasia involves the glans, prepuce, or penile shaft, while similar lesions on the remainder of the genitalia and perineum are termed Bowen disease. Regardless of the terminology and clinical presentation, these are carcinomas with the same malignant potential; biopsies should be performed, and the carcinoma should be staged and treated.

Herpes viral infections have not been associated with the development of penile cancers.

Previous
Next

Indications

Indications for therapy and therapeutic options depend on the histologic diagnosis of cancer established based on biopsy findings, the location and size of the tumor, and the presence or absence of palpable inguinal lymphadenopathy. All patients with penile cancer require therapy because spontaneous regression does not occur and, untreated, the cancer ultimately causes death.

Rippentrop et al studied the surgical therapy status among the 1605 men identified in the SEER database. Surgical therapy was recorded in 1422 patients, of whom 721 (50.7%) underwent some form of surgery. Excisional biopsy was performed in 19.7%, and topical therapy with laser or cryoablation was used in 0.3%. Of those undergoing surgery, 13.1% underwent partial penectomy without lymphadenectomy, 2.1% underwent a combined procedure, and only 0.5% required radical penectomy.[10]

Previous
Next

Relevant Anatomy

The anatomy of the penis has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of penile cancer. Embryologically, the 3 erectile bodies of the penis arise from the paired genital tubercles, which give rise to the corpora cavernosa, the caudal portion of the urogenital sinus that creates the corpora spongiosum, and the paired urethral folds, which join in the midline.

For purposes of description, the penis may be divided into the root, which is located within the superficial perineal pouch and is the primary fixation point; the body, which contains the 3 corpora and the overlying tissues; and the glans, which sits as a cap on the corpora cavernosa but is a part of the corpora spongiosa.

The superficial fascia is continuous with dartos fascia posteriorly and with the Scarpa and Camper fascia anteriorly. The superficial fascia consists of a single layer with loose connections to the overlying skin.

The corpora are covered by a layer of dense fibrous tissue called the tunica albuginea. The corpora cavernosa are incompletely separated by the septum penis, a thin layer of fibrous tissue continuous with the tunica albuginea. The fascia overlying the corpora cavernosa blends with the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm. The erectile tissue within the corpora is composed of a spongelike network of endothelium-lined sinusoidal spaces.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Stanley A Brosman, MD Clinical Professor, Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Stanley A Brosman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association for Cancer Research, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Urological Association, Society for Basic Urologic Research, Society of Surgical Oncology, Society of Urologic Oncology, Western Section of the American Urological Association, Association of Clinical Research Professionals, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Societe Internationale d'Urologie (International Society of Urology), International Society of Urological Pathology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Professor of Urology, Director, Center for Laparoscopy and Endourology, Department of Surgery, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, Society of University Urologists, Association of Military Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons, American Urological Association, Endourological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Gamal Mostafa Ghoniem, MD, FACS Professor and Vice Chair of Urology, Chief, Division of Female Urology, Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, and Voiding Dysfunction, Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine

Gamal Mostafa Ghoniem, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Urogynecologic Society, International Continence Society, International Urogynaecology Association, Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction, American College of Surgeons, American Urological Association

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Astellas for speaking and teaching; Received grant/research funds from Uroplasty for none; Partner received honoraria from Allergan for speaking and teaching.

Acknowledgements

Dan Theodorescu, MD, PhD Paul A Bunn Professor of Cancer Research, Professor of Surgery and Pharmacology, Director, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center

Dan Theodorescu, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Cancer Society, American College of Surgeons, American Urological Association, Medical Society of Virginia, Society for Basic Urologic Research, and Society of Urologic Oncology

Disclosure: Key Genomics Ownership interest Co-Founder-50% Stock Ownership; KromaTiD, Inc Stock Options Board membership

References
  1. Cancer Facts & Figures 2015. American Cancer Society. Available at http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@editorial/documents/document/acspc-044552.pdf. Accessed: October 31, 2015.

  2. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Maldonado JL, Pow-sang J, Giuliano AR. Incidence trends in primary malignant penile cancer. Urol Oncol. 2007 Sep-Oct. 25(5):361-7. [Medline].

  3. Seyam RM, Bissada NK, Mokhtar AA, et al. Outcome of penile cancer in circumcised men. J Urol. 2006 Feb. 175(2):557-61; discussion 561. [Medline].

  4. Madsen BS, van den Brule AJ, Jensen HL, Wohlfahrt J, Frisch M. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis--population-based case-control study in Denmark. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Oct. 17(10):2683-91. [Medline].

  5. Harish K, Ravi R. The role of tobacco in penile carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1995 Mar. 75(3):375-7. [Medline].

  6. Maden C, Sherman KJ, Beckmann AM, Hislop TG, Teh CZ, Ashley RL, et al. History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Jan 6. 85(1):19-24. [Medline].

  7. Hellberg D, Valentin J, Eklund T, Nilsson S. Penile cancer: is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behaviour?. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987 Nov 21. 295(6609):1306-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  8. de Paula AA, Netto JC, Freitas R Jr, et al. Penile carcinoma: the role of koilocytosis in groin metastasis and the association with disease specific survival. J Urol. 2007 Apr. 177(4):1339-43; discussion 1343. [Medline].

  9. Mannweiler S, Sygulla S, Beham-Schmid C, et al. Penile carcinogenesis in a low-incidence area: a clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of 115 invasive carcinomas with special emphasis on chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Jul. 35(7):998-1006. [Medline].

  10. Rippentrop JM, Joslyn SA, Konety BR. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: evaluation of data from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program. Cancer. 2004 Sep 15. 101(6):1357-63. [Medline].

  11. [Guideline] Hakenberg OW, Compérat EM, Minhas S, Necchi A, Protzel C, Watkin N. EAU Guidelines on Penile Cancer: 2014 Update. Eur Urol. 2015 Jan. 67(1):142-50. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  12. Graafland NM, Teertstra HJ, Besnard AP, van Boven HH, Horenblas S. Identification of high risk pathological node positive penile carcinoma: value of preoperative computerized tomography imaging. J Urol. 2011 Mar. 185(3):881-7. [Medline].

  13. Tabatabaei S, Harisinghani M, McDougal WS. Regional lymph node staging using lymphotropic nanoparticle enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with ferumoxtran-10 in patients with penile cancer. J Urol. 2005 Sep. 174(3):923-7; discussion 927. [Medline].

  14. Schlenker B, Scher B, Tiling R, et al. Detection of inguinal lymph node involvement in penile squamous cell carcinoma by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT: A prospective single-center study. Urol Oncol. 2012 Jan. 30(1):55-9. [Medline].

  15. Kroon BK, Horenblas S, Deurloo EE, Nieweg OE, Teertstra HJ. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology before sentinel node biopsy in patients with penile carcinoma. BJU Int. 2005 Mar. 95(4):517-21. [Medline].

  16. Kroon BK, Horenblas S, Meinhardt W, et al. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy in penile carcinoma: evaluation of 10 years experience. Eur Urol. 2005 May. 47(5):601-6; discussion 606. [Medline].

  17. Tabatabaei S, McDougal WS. Invasive carcinoma of the penis: management and prognosis. Ritchie JP, D’Amico AV, eds. Urologic Oncology. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders; 2005. 710-22.

  18. Campos RS, Lopes A, Guimaraes GC, et al. E-cadherin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 as prognostic markers in penile cancer: analysis of 125 patients. Urology. 2006 Apr. 67(4):797-802. [Medline].

  19. Guimaraes GC, Leal ML, Campos RS, et al. Do proliferating cell nuclear antigen and MIB-1/Ki-67 have prognostic value in penile squamous cell carcinoma?. Urology. 2007 Jul. 70(1):137-42. [Medline].

  20. Stankiewicz E, Ng M, Cuzick J, Mesher D, Watkin N, Lam W, et al. The prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in penile squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Pathol. 2012 Jun. 65(6):534-7. [Medline].

  21. Solsona E, Algaba F, Horenblas S, et al. EAU Guidelines on Penile Cancer. Eur Urol. 2004 Jul. 46(1):1-8. [Medline].

  22. Novara G, Artibani W, Cunico SC, et al. How accurately do Solsona and European Association of Urology risk groups predict for risk of lymph node metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis?. Urology. 2008 Feb. 71(2):328-33. [Medline].

  23. Bermejo C, Busby JE, Spiess PE, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by aggressive surgical consolidation for metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2007 Apr. 177(4):1335-8. [Medline].

  24. Pagliaro LC, Williams DL, Daliani D, Williams MB, Osai W, Kincaid M. Neoadjuvant paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic penile cancer: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 20. 28(24):3851-7. [Medline].

  25. Haas GP, Blumenstein BA, Gagliano RG, Russell CA, Rivkin SE, Culkin DJ, et al. Cisplatin, methotrexate and bleomycin for the treatment of carcinoma of the penis: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Urol. 1999 Jun. 161(6):1823-5. [Medline].

  26. Shindel AW, Mann MW, Lev RY, et al. Mohs micrographic surgery for penile cancer: management and long-term followup. J Urol. 2007 Nov. 178(5):1980-5. [Medline].

  27. Brandes SB, Sengelmann R, Hruza G. Mohs micrographic surgery for penile cancer: management and long term follow-up [abstract 708]. J Urol. 2001. 165:172.

  28. Gulino G, Sasso F, Falabella R, et al. Distal urethral reconstruction of the glans for penile carcinoma: results of a novel technique at 1-year of followup. J Urol. 2007 Sep. 178(3 Pt 1):941-4. [Medline].

  29. Ozsahin M, Jichlinski P, Weber DC, et al. Treatment of penile carcinoma: to cut or not to cut?. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Nov 1. 66(3):674-9. [Medline].

  30. Djajadiningrat RS, van Werkhoven E, Horenblas S. Prophylactic pelvic lymph node dissection in penile cancer patients. J Urol. 2014 Dec 10. [Medline].

  31. Kroon BK, Horenblas S, Lont AP, et al. Patients with penile carcinoma benefit from immediate resection of clinically occult lymph node metastases. J Urol. 2005 Mar. 173(3):816-9. [Medline].

  32. Bouchot O, Rigaud J, Maillet F, et al. Morbidity of inguinal lymphadenectomy for invasive penile carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2004 Jun. 45(6):761-5; discussion 765-6. [Medline].

  33. d'Ancona CA, de Lucena RG, Querne FA, et al. Long-term followup of penile carcinoma treated with penectomy and bilateral modified inguinal lymphadenectomy. J Urol. 2004 Aug. 172(2):498-501; discussion 501. [Medline].

  34. Horenblas S, Bex A, Tanis PJ. Sentinel node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis [abstract 710]. J Urol. 2001. 165:173.

  35. Izawa J, Tamboli P, Ainslie N. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping (IOLM) for squamous penile cancer: The M.D. Anderson experience [abstract 711]. J Urol. 2001. 165:173.

  36. Horenblas S, Jansen L, Meinhardt W, et al. Detection of occult metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis using a dynamic sentinel node procedure. J Urol. 2000 Jan. 163(1):100-4. [Medline].

  37. Perdona S, Autorino R, De Sio M, et al. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy in clinically node-negative penile cancer versus radical inguinal lymphadenectomy: a comparative study. Urology. 2005 Dec. 66(6):1282-6. [Medline].

  38. Lont AP, Kroon BK, Gallee MP, et al. Pelvic lymph node dissection for penile carcinoma: extent of inguinal lymph node involvement as an indicator for pelvic lymph node involvement and survival. J Urol. 2007 Mar. 177(3):947-52; discussion 952. [Medline].

  39. Tobias-Machado M, Tavares A, Ornellas AA, et al. Video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy: a new minimally invasive procedure for radical management of inguinal nodes in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2007 Mar. 177(3):953-7; discussion 958. [Medline].

  40. Graafland NM, Moonen LM, van Boven HH, et al. Inguinal recurrence following therapeutic lymphadenectomy for node positive penile carcinoma: outcome and implications for management. J Urol. 2011 Mar. 185(3):888-93. [Medline].

  41. Thuret R, Sun M, Abdollah F, Budaus L, et al. Tumor grade improves the prognostic ability of American Joint Committee on Cancer stage in patients with penile carcinoma. J Urol. 2011 Feb. 185(2):501-7. [Medline].

  42. Zini L, Cloutier V, Isbarn H, et al. A simple and accurate model for prediction of cancer-specific mortality in patients treated with surgery for primary penile squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Feb 1. 15(3):1013-8. [Medline].

  43. Novak JA, Dvoaeek J. Interstitial brachytherapy for penile carcinoma [abstract 709]. J Urol. 2001. 165:173.

  44. Hegarty PK, Kayes O, Freeman A, et al. A prospective study of 100 cases of penile cancer managed according to European Association of Urology guidelines. BJU Int. 2006 Sep. 98(3):526-31. [Medline].

  45. Slaton JW, Huang SF, Levy DA. Lymph node-positive squamous penile carcinoma: Extent of nodal involvement predicts 3-year disease-free survival [abstract 712]. J Urol. 2001. 165:173.

  46. Agrawal A, Pai D, Ananthakrishnan N, et al. The histological extent of the local spread of carcinoma of the penis and its therapeutic implications. BJU Int. 2000 Feb. 85(3):299-301. [Medline].

  47. Algaba F, Horenblas S, Pizzocaro-Luigi Piva G, et al. EAU guidelines on penile cancer. Eur Urol. 2002 Sep. 42(3):199-203. [Medline].

  48. Bermejo C, Busby JE, Spiess PE, Heller L, Pagliaro LC, Pettaway CA. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by aggressive surgical consolidation for metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2007 Apr. 177(4):1335-8. [Medline].

  49. Bevan-Thomas R, Slaton JW, Pettaway CA. Contemporary morbidity from lymphadenectomy for penile squamous cell carcinoma: the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Experience. J Urol. 2002 Apr. 167(4):1638-42. [Medline].

  50. Bhagat SK, Gopalakrishnan G, Kekre NS, et al. Factors predicting inguinal node metastasis in squamous cell cancer of penis. World J Urol. 2010 Feb. 28(1):93-8. [Medline].

  51. Bissada NK. Conservative extirpative treatment of cancer of the penis. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):283-90. [Medline].

  52. Bissada NK, Yakout HH, Fahmy WE, et al. Multi-institutional long-term experience with conservative surgery for invasive penile carcinoma. J Urol. 2003 Feb. 169(2):500-2. [Medline].

  53. Brennhovd B, Johnsrud K, Berner A, et al. Sentinel node procedure in low-stage/low-grade penile carcinomas. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006. 40(3):204-7. [Medline].

  54. Brown CT, Minhas S, Ralph DJ. Conservative surgery for penile cancer: subtotal glans excision without grafting. BJU Int. 2005 Oct. 96(6):911-2. [Medline].

  55. Burgers JK, Badalament RA, Drago JR. Penile cancer. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and staging. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):247-56. [Medline].

  56. Busby JE, Pettaway CA. What's new in the management of penile cancer?. Curr Opin Urol. 2005 Sep. 15(5):350-7. [Medline].

  57. Catalona WJ. Modified inguinal lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the penis with preservation of saphenous veins: technique and preliminary results. J Urol. 1988 Aug. 140(2):306-10. [Medline].

  58. Chaux A, Velazquez EF, Algaba F, Ayala G, Cubilla AL. Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S7-S14. [Medline].

  59. Chen MF, Chen WC, Wu CT, Chuang CK, Ng KF, Chang JT. Contemporary management of penile cancer including surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy: an experience in Taiwan. World J Urol. 2004 Apr. 22(1):60-6. [Medline].

  60. Coblentz TR, Theodorescu D. Morbidity of modified prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. J Urol. 2002 Oct. 168(4 Pt 1):1386-9. [Medline].

  61. Colberg JW, Andriole GL, Catalona WJ. Long-term follow-up of men undergoing modified inguinal lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the penis. Br J Urol. 1997 Jan. 79(1):54-7. [Medline].

  62. Crispen PL, Mydlo JH. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia and other premalignant lesions of the penis. Urol Clin North Am. 2010 Aug. 37(3):335-42. [Medline].

  63. Crook J, Ma C, Grimard L. Radiation therapy in the management of the primary penile tumor: an update. World J Urol. 2009 Apr. 27(2):189-96. [Medline].

  64. Cubilla AL, Ayala AG, Dillner J, et al. Tumours of the penis. Eble JN, Sauter G, Epstein JI, Sesterhenn IA, eds. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2004.

  65. Culkin DJ, Beer TM. Advanced penile carcinoma. J Urol. 2003 Aug. 170(2 Pt 1):359-65. [Medline].

  66. Dai B, Ye DW, Kong YY, et al. Predicting regional lymph node metastasis in Chinese patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma: the role of histopathological classification, tumor stage and depth of invasion. J Urol. 2006 Oct. 176(4 Pt 1):1431-5; discussion 1435. [Medline].

  67. Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, et al. Penile cancer: importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in situ and invasive disease. Int J Cancer. 2005 Sep 10. 116(4):606-16. [Medline].

  68. Das S. Penile amputations for the management of primary carcinoma of the penis. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):277-82. [Medline].

  69. Davis JW, Schellhammer PF, Schlossberg SM. Conservative surgical therapy for penile and urethral carcinoma. Urology. 1999 Feb. 53(2):386-92. [Medline].

  70. Dewire D, Lepor H. Anatomic considerations of the penis and its lymphatic drainage. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):211-9. [Medline].

  71. Dillner J, von Krogh G, Horenblas S, et al. Etiology of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2000. 189-93. [Medline].

  72. Donat SM. Surgery of penile and urethral carcinoma. Campbell's Urology. 8th ed. 2002. 2985-3004.

  73. Eisenberger MA. Chemotherapy for carcinomas of the penis and urethra. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):333-8. [Medline].

  74. Emerson RE, Ulbright TM, Eble JN, et al. Predicting cancer progression in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma: the importance of depth of invasion and vascular invasion. Mod Pathol. 2001 Oct. 14(10):963-8. [Medline].

  75. Ficarra V, Akduman B, Bouchot O, Palou J, Tobias-Machado M. Prognostic factors in penile cancer. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S66-73. [Medline].

  76. Ficarra V, Zattoni F, Artibani W, et al. Nomogram predictive of pathological inguinal lymph node involvement in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. J Urol. 2006 May. 175(5):1700-4; discussion 1704-5. [Medline].

  77. Ficarra V, Zattoni F, Artibani W, et al. Nomogram predictive of pathological inguinal lymph node involvement in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. J Urol. 2006 May. 175(5):1700-4; discussion 1704-5. [Medline].

  78. Ficarra V, Zattoni F, Cunico SC, et al. Lymphatic and vascular embolizations are independent predictive variables of inguinal lymph node involvement in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: Gruppo Uro-Oncologico del Nord Est (Northeast Uro-Oncological Group) Penile Cancer data base data. Cancer. 2005 Jun 15. 103(12):2507-16. [Medline].

  79. Fossa SD, Hall KS, Johannessen NB, et al. Cancer of the penis. Experience at the Norwegian Radium Hospital 1974-1985. Eur Urol. 1987. 13(6):372-7. [Medline].

  80. Fraley EE, Zhang G, Manivel C, et al. The role of ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy and significance of histological differentiation in treatment of carcinoma of the penis. J Urol. 1989 Dec. 142(6):1478-82. [Medline].

  81. Gerbaulet A, Lambin P. Radiation therapy of cancer of the penis. Indications, advantages, and pitfalls. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):325-32. [Medline].

  82. Grossman HB. Premalignant and early carcinomas of the penis and scrotum. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):221-6. [Medline].

  83. Hakenberg OW, Nippgen JB, Froehner M, et al. Cisplatin, methotrexate and bleomycin for treating advanced penile carcinoma. BJU Int. 2006 Dec. 98(6):1225-7. [Medline].

  84. Hatzichristou DG, Apostolidis A, Tzortzis V, et al. Glansectomy: an alternative surgical treatment for Buschke-Löwenstein tumors of the penis. Urology. 2001 May. 57(5):966-9. [Medline].

  85. Hegarty PK, Dinney CP, Pettaway CA. Controversies in ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. Urol Clin North Am. 2010 Aug. 37(3):421-34. [Medline].

  86. Heyns CF, Fleshner N, Sangar V, Schlenker B, Yuvaraja TB, van Poppel H. Management of the lymph nodes in penile cancer. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S43-57. [Medline].

  87. Heyns CF, Mendoza-Valdés A, Pompeo AC. Diagnosis and staging of penile cancer. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S15-23. [Medline].

  88. Hoffman MA, Renshaw AA, Loughlin KR. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and microscopic pathologic margins: how much margin is needed for local cure?. Cancer. 1999 Apr 1. 85(7):1565-8. [Medline].

  89. Horenblas S. Lymphadenectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Part 1: diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. BJU Int. 2001 Sep. 88(5):467-72. [Medline].

  90. Horenblas S. Lymphadenectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Part 2: the role and technique of lymph node dissection. BJU Int. 2001 Sep. 88(5):473-83. [Medline].

  91. Horenblas S, van Tinteren H. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. IV. Prognostic factors of survival: analysis of tumor, nodes and metastasis classification system. J Urol. 1994 May. 151(5):1239-43. [Medline].

  92. Horenblas S, van Tinteren H, Delemarre JF, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. II. Treatment of the primary tumor. J Urol. 1992 Jun. 147(6):1533-8. [Medline].

  93. Horenblas S, van Tinteren H, Delemarre JF, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. III. Treatment of regional lymph nodes. J Urol. 1993 Mar. 149(3):492-7. [Medline].

  94. Kattan MW, Ficarra V, Artibani W, Cunico SC, Fandella A, Martignoni G. Nomogram predictive of cancer specific survival in patients undergoing partial or total amputation for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. J Urol. 2006 Jun. 175(6):2103-8; discussion 2108. [Medline].

  95. Krieg R, Hoffman R. Current management of unusual genitourinary cancers. Part 1: Penile cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 1999 Oct. 13(10):1347-52. [Medline].

  96. Kroon BK, Horenblas S, Deurloo EE, et al. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology before sentinel node biopsy in patients with penile carcinoma. BJU Int. 2005 Mar. 95(4):517-21. [Medline].

  97. Kroon BK, Horenblas S, Estourgie SH, et al. How to avoid false-negative dynamic sentinel node procedures in penile carcinoma. J Urol. 2004 Jun. 171(6 Pt 1):2191-4. [Medline].

  98. Kroon BK, Lont AP, Valdes Olmos RA, et al. Morbidity of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in penile carcinoma. J Urol. 2005 Mar. 173(3):813-5. [Medline].

  99. Kulkarni JN, Kamat MR. Prophylactic bilateral groin node dissection versus prophylactic radiotherapy and surveillance in patients with N0 and N1-2A carcinoma of the penis. Eur Urol. 1994. 26(2):123-8. [Medline].

  100. Leijte A, Graafland N, Valdes R. Prospective evaluation of hybrd 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging clinically node-negative patients with penile carcinoma. BJU Int. January 2009. 104:640-5.

  101. Leijte JA, Kerst JM, Bais E, Antonini N, Horenblas S. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced penile carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2007 Aug. 52(2):488-94. [Medline].

  102. Leijte JA, Kroon BK, Valdes Olmos RA, et al. Reliability and safety of current dynamic sentinel node biopsy for penile carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2007 Jul. 52(1):170-7. [Medline].

  103. Lont AP, Horenblas S, Tanis PJ, et al. Management of clinically node negative penile carcinoma: improved survival after the introduction of dynamic sentinel node biopsy. J Urol. 2003 Sep. 170(3):783-6. [Medline].

  104. Lubke WL, Thompson IM. The case for inguinal lymph node dissection in the treatment of T2-T4, N0 penile cancer. Semin Urol. 1993 May. 11(2):80-4. [Medline].

  105. Lynch DF Jr, Pettaway CA. Tumors of the Penis. Campbell MR, Walsh PC, Retik AB, eds. Campbell's Urology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 2002. 2945-82.

  106. Marconnet L, Rigaud J, Bouchot O. Long-term followup of penile carcinoma with high risk for lymph node invasion treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy. J Urol. 2010 Jun. 183(6):2227-32. [Medline].

  107. McCance DJ, Kopan R, Fuchs E, et al. Human papillomavirus type 16 alters human epithelial cell differentiation in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Oct. 85(19):7169-73. [Medline].

  108. McDougal WS. Carcinoma of the penis: improved survival by early regional lymphadenectomy based on the histological grade and depth of invasion of the primary lesion. J Urol. 1995 Oct. 154(4):1364-6. [Medline].

  109. McDougal WS. Phallic preserving surgery in patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. J Urol. 2005 Dec. 174(6):2218-20, discussion 2220. [Medline].

  110. McLean M, Akl AM, Warde P, et al. The results of primary radiation therapy in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993 Mar 15. 25(4):623-8. [Medline].

  111. Micali G, Nasca MR, Tedeschi A. Topical treatment of intraepithelial penile carcinoma with imiquimod. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Nov. 28 Suppl 1:4-6. [Medline].

  112. Minhas S, Manseck A, Watya S, Hegarty PK. Penile cancer--prevention and premalignant conditions. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S24-35. [Medline].

  113. Misra S, Chaturvedi A, Misra NC. Penile carcinoma: a challenge for the developing world. Lancet Oncol. 2004 Apr. 5(4):240-7. [Medline].

  114. Mobilio G, Ficarra V. Genital treatment of penile carcinoma. Curr Opin Urol. 2001 May. 11(3):299-304. [Medline].

  115. Mohs FE, Snow SN, Larson PO. Mohs micrographic surgery for penile tumors. Urol Clin North Am. 1992 May. 19(2):291-304. [Medline].

  116. Mukamel E, deKernion JB. Early versus delayed lymph-node dissection versus no lymph-node dissection in carcinoma of the penis. Urol Clin North Am. 1987 Nov. 14(4):707-11. [Medline].

  117. Nelson BA, Cookson MS, Smith JA Jr, et al. Complications of inguinal and pelvic lymphadenectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a contemporary series. J Urol. 2004 Aug. 172(2):494-7. [Medline].

  118. Nordenvall C, Chang ET, Adami HO, Ye W. Cancer risk among patients with condylomata acuminata. Int J Cancer. 2006 Aug 15. 119(4):888-93. [Medline].

  119. Novara G, Galfano A, De Marco V, Artibani W, Ficarra V. Prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2007 Mar. 4(3):140-6. [Medline].

  120. Novara G, Galfano A, De Marco V, Artibani W, Ficarra V. Prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2007 Mar. 4(3):140-6. [Medline].

  121. Opjordsmoen S, Fosså SD. Quality of life in patients treated for penile cancer. A follow-up study. Br J Urol. 1994 Nov. 74(5):652-7. [Medline].

  122. Ornellas AA, Kinchin EW, Nobrega BL, et al. Surgical treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: Brazilian National Cancer Institute long-term experience. J Surg Oncol. 2008 May 1. 97(6):487-95. [Medline].

  123. Ornellas AA, Nobrega BL, Wei Kin Chin E, et al. Prognostic factors in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: analysis of 196 patients treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute. J Urol. 2008 Oct. 180(4):1354-9. [Medline].

  124. Ornellas AA, Seixas AL, Marota A, et al. Surgical treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: retrospective analysis of 350 cases. J Urol. 1994 May. 151(5):1244-9. [Medline].

  125. Pagliaro LC, Williams DL, Daliani D, et al. Neoadjuvant paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic penile cancer: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 20. 28(24):3851-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  126. Pandey D, Mahajan V, Kannan RR. Prognostic factors in node-positive carcinoma of the penis. J Surg Oncol. 2006 Feb 1. 93(2):133-8. [Medline].

  127. Pettaway C, Lynch D, Davis J. Tumors of the penis. Wein AJ, Kavoussi L, Novick A. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9. St Louis: WB Saunders; 2007. 31.

  128. Pettaway CA, Pagliaro L, Theodore C, Haas G. Treatment of visceral, unresectable, or bulky/unresectable regional metastases of penile cancer. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S58-65. [Medline].

  129. Pietrzak P, Corbishley C, Watkin N. Organ-sparing surgery for invasive penile cancer: early follow-up data. BJU Int. 2004 Dec. 94(9):1253-7. [Medline].

  130. Pizzocaro G, Nicolai N, Milani A. Taxanes in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil for advanced penile cancer: preliminary results. Eur Urol. 2009 Mar. 55(3):546-51. [Medline].

  131. Poblet E, Alfaro L, Fernander-Segoviano P, et al. Human papillomavirus-associated penile squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-positive patients. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999 Sep. 23(9):1119-23. [Medline].

  132. Pow-Sang MR, Ferreira U, Pow-Sang JM, Nardi AC, Destefano V. Epidemiology and natural history of penile cancer. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S2-6. [Medline].

  133. Pugliese JM, Morey AF, Peterson AC. Lichen sclerosus: review of the literature and current recommendations for management. J Urol. 2007 Dec. 178(6):2268-76. [Medline].

  134. Sarin R, Norman AR, Steel GG, et al. Treatment results and prognostic factors in 101 men treated for squamous carcinoma of the penis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997 Jul 1. 38(4):713-22. [Medline].

  135. Seixas AL, Ornellas AA, Marota A, et al. Verrucous carcinoma of the penis: retrospective analysis of 32 cases. J Urol. 1994 Nov. 152(5 Pt 1):1476-8; discussion 1478-9. [Medline].

  136. Seyam RM, Bissada NK, Mokhtar AA, Mourad WA, Aslam M, Elkum N, et al. Outcome of penile cancer in circumcised men. J Urol. 2006 Feb. 175(2):557-61; discussion 561. [Medline].

  137. Shindel AW, Mann MW, Lev RY, Sengelmann R, Petersen J, Hruza GJ, et al. Mohs micrographic surgery for penile cancer: management and long-term followup. J Urol. 2007 Nov. 178(5):1980-5. [Medline].

  138. Slaton JW, Morgenstern N, Levy DA, et al. Tumor stage, vascular invasion and the percentage of poorly differentiated cancer: independent prognosticators for inguinal lymph node metastasis in penile squamous cancer. J Urol. 2001 Apr. 165(4):1138-42. [Medline].

  139. Solsona E, Bahl A, Brandes SB, Dickerson D, Puras-Baez A, van Poppel H, et al. New developments in the treatment of localized penile cancer. Urology. 2010 Aug. 76(2 Suppl 1):S36-42. [Medline].

  140. Solsona E, Iborra I, Rubio J, et al. Prospective validation of the association of local tumor stage and grade as a predictive factor for occult lymph node micrometastasis in patients with penile carcinoma and clinically negative inguinal lymph nodes. J Urol. 2001 May. 165(5):1506-9. [Medline].

  141. Srinivas V, Morse MJ, Herr HW, et al. Penile cancer: relation of extent of nodal metastasis to survival. J Urol. 1987 May. 137(5):880-2. [Medline].

  142. Tabatabaei S, Harisinghani M, McDougal WS. Regional lymph node staging using lymphotropic nanoparticle enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with ferumoxtran-10 in patients with penile cancer. J Urol. 2005 Sep. 174(3):923-7; discussion 927. [Medline].

  143. Tanis PJ, Lont AP, Meinhardt W, et al. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy for penile cancer: reliability of a staging technique. J Urol. 2002 Jul. 168(1):76-80. [Medline].

  144. Taussky D, Crook J, Al Ghamdi A, et al. Treatment of the inguinal regions in penile cancer: a review of the literature and treatment proposal. Can J Urol. 2006 Feb. 13(1):2978-83. [Medline].

  145. Theodore C, Skoneczna I, Bodrogi I, Leahy M, Kerst JM, Collette L. A phase II multicentre study of irinotecan (CPT 11) in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) in metastatic or locally advanced penile carcinoma (EORTC PROTOCOL 30992). Ann Oncol. 2008 Jul. 19(7):1304-7. [Medline].

  146. Theodorescu D, Russo P, Zhang ZF, et al. Outcomes of initial surveillance of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and negative nodes. J Urol. 1996 May. 155(5):1626-31. [Medline].

  147. Tietjen DN, Malek RS. Laser therapy of squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the penis. Urology. 1998 Oct. 52(4):559-65. [Medline].

  148. von Krogh G, Horenblas S. The management and prevention of premalignant penile lesions. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2000. 220-9. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Squamous cell carcinoma (Image courtesy of Hon Pak, MD).
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.