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Premature Ventricular Contraction

  • Author: James E Keany, MD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 07, 2015
 

Background

Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is caused by an ectopic cardiac pacemaker located in the ventricle. PVCs are characterized by premature and bizarrely shaped QRS complexes usually wider than 120 msec on with the width of the electrocardiogram (ECG). These complexes are not preceded by a P wave, and the T wave is usually large, and its direction is opposite the major deflection of the QRS.

The clinical significance of PVCs depends on their frequency, complexity, and hemodynamic response.

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Pathophysiology

Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) reflect activation of the ventricles from a site below the atrioventricular node (AVN). Suggested mechanisms for PVCs are reentry, triggered activity, and enhanced automaticity.

Reentry occurs when an area of 1-way block in the Purkinje fibers and a second area of slow conduction are present. This condition is frequently seen in patients with underlying heart disease that creates areas of differential conduction and recovery due to myocardial scarring or ischemia. During ventricular activation, the area of slow conduction activates the blocked part of the system after the rest of the ventricle has recovered, resulting in an extra beat. Reentry can produce single ectopic beats, or it can trigger paroxysmal tachycardia.

Triggered beats are considered to be due to after-depolarizations triggered by the preceding action potential. These are often seen in patients with ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity and reperfusion therapy after myocardial infarction (MI).

Enhanced automaticity suggests an ectopic focus of pacemaker cells in the ventricle that has a subthreshold potential for firing. The basic rhythm of the heart raises these cells to threshold, which precipitates an ectopic beat. This process is the underlying mechanism for arrhythmias due to excess catecholamines and some electrolyte deficiencies, particularly hyperkalemia.

Ventricular ectopy associated with a structurally normal heart most commonly occurs from the right ventricular outflow tract beneath the pulmonic valve. The mechanism is thought to be enhanced automaticity versus triggered activity. These arrhythmias are often induced by exercise, isoproterenol (in the EP lab), the recovery phase of exercise, or hormonal changes in female patients (pregnancy, menses, menopause). The characteristic ECG pattern for these arrhythmias is a large, tall R wave in the inferior leads with a left bundle-branch block pattern in V 1 . If the source is the left ventricular outflow tract, there is a right bundle-branch block pattern in V 1 . Beta-blocker therapy is first-line therapy if symptomatic.

Factors that increase the risk of PVCs include male sex, advanced age, African American race, hypertension and underlying ischemic heart disease, a bundle-branch block on 12-lead ECG, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia.

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Etiology

Cardiac causes of premature ventricular contractions include the following:

Other causes of PVCs include the following:

  • Hypoxia and/or hypercapnia
  • Medications (eg, digoxin, sympathomimetics, tricyclic antidepressants, aminophylline, caffeine)
  • Illicit substances (eg, cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol, tobacco)
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Epidemiology

United States statistics

Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are one of the most common arrhythmias and can occur in patients with or without heart disease. The prevalence of PVCs varies greatly, with estimates of less than 3% to more than 60% in asymptomatic individuals.

Data from large, population-based studies indicate that the prevalence ranges from less than 3% for young white women without heart disease to almost 20% for older African American individuals with hypertension.

Race-, sex-, and age-related demographics

Black race is associated with an increased frequency of PVCs on routine monitoring.[2] In a large population-based study of PVC prevalence, black race alone increased the risk of PVCs by 30% compared to the risk in white individuals.

Ventricular ectopy is more prevalent in men than in women of the same age. Male sex alone increases the risk of identifying PVCs on routine screening, with an odds ratio for male sex of 1.39 compared with women.

PVC frequency increases with age, reflecting the increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiac disease in aging populations.

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Prognosis

In asymptomatic patients without underlying heart disease, the long-term prognosis is similar to that of the general population. Asymptomatic patients with ejection fractions greater than 40% have a 3.5% incidence of sustained ventricular tachycardia or cardiac arrest. Therefore, in patients with absence of heart disease on noninvasive workup, reassurance is appropriate. One caveat to this is that emerging data suggest that very frequent ventricular ectopy (>4000/24 h) may be associated with the development of cardiomyopathy related to abnormal electrical activation of the heart. This mechanism is thought to be similar to that of chronic right ventricular pacing associated cardiomyopathy.

In the setting of acute coronary ischemia/infarction, patients with simple premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) rarely progress to malignant arrhythmias. However, persistent complex ectopy after MI is associated with increased risk of sudden death and may be an indication for electrophysiologic studies (EPS).

Patients with underlying chronic structural heart disease (eg, cardiomyopathy, infarction, valvular disease) and complex ectopy (eg, >10 PVCs/h) have a significantly increased rate of mortality. Note the following:

  • Understanding of the role of antiarrhythmic therapy in the months after MI is poor. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) studied patients with ventricular ectopy after MI to see if antiarrhythmic therapy improved survival rates. [3]  Despite suppression of ectopy on Holter monitoring, patients treated with encainide, flecainide, or moricizine had increased rates of sudden death and death from all causes. Findings have suggested a role for amiodarone in this patient population and have had significant reductions in rates of post-MI ventricular arrhythmias and death. Moricizine (Ethmozine) was discontinued in July 2007 because of diminished market demand.
  • Left ventricular dysfunction has a stronger association with increased mortality rate than do PVCs. Many now believe that PVCs reflect the severity of heart disease rather than contribute to arrhythmogenesis. Some studies in recent years suggest that increased variability of the PVC coupling interval in patients with underlying heart diseases, including left ventricular dysfunction, is a predictor of cardiac death; however, this remains a matter of debate. [4, 5]
  • EPS has a primary role in risk stratification of patients with frequent or complex PVCs. Patients with PVCs that are noninducible (ie, unable to trigger ventricular tachycardia during stimulation) have a low risk of sudden death.

Frequent PVCs may be associated with increased risk of stroke in patients who do not have hypertension and diabetes.[6]

Mortality/morbidity

The clinical significance of PVCs depends on the clinical context in which they occur.

  • PVCs in young, healthy patients without underlying structural heart disease are usually not associated with any increased rate of mortality.
  • PVCs in older patients, in particular those with underlying heart disease, are associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiac events, particularly sustained ventricular dysrhythmias and sudden death.
  • In patients who have had a MI, the risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death is related to the complexity and frequency of the PVCs. Patients with PVCs in Lown classes 3-5 are at greatest risk (see Lown grading criteria below).

 

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

James E Keany, MD, FACEP Associate Medical Director, Emergency Services, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Orange County at Mission

James E Keany, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, California Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Aseem D Desai, MD, FACC Cardiac Electrophysiologist, Mission Internal Medicine Group, Inc

Aseem D Desai, MD, FACC is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Cardiology, American College of Physicians, American Heart Association, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP(EM), CSPQ Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine; Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Canada

Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP(EM), CSPQ is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Erik D Schraga, MD Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mills-Peninsula Emergency Medical Associates

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Assaad J Sayah, MD, FACEP Chief, Department of Emergency Medicine; Senior Vice President, Primary and Emergency Care, Cambridge Health Alliance

Assaad J Sayah, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Massachusetts Medical Society, National Association of EMS Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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ECG shows frequent, unifocal PVCs with a fixed coupling interval between the ectopic beat and the previous beat. These PVCs result in a fully compensatory pause; the interval between the 2 sinus beats surrounding the PVC are exactly twice the normal R-R interval. This finding indicates that the sinus node continues to pace at its normal rhythm despite the PVC, which fails to reset the sinus node.
On this ECG, the PVCs occur near the peak of the T wave of the preceding beat. These beats predispose the patient to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. This R-on-T pattern is often seen in patients with acute myocardial infarction or long Q-T intervals. In the latter case, the triggered arrhythmia would be torsade.
 
 
 
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